Wednesday, July 31, 2019
I stand before you today, the representative of a family in grief, in a country in mourning before a world in shock. We are all united not only in our desire to pay our respects to Diana but rather in our need to do so. For such was her extraordinary appeal that the tens of millions of people taking part in this service all over the world via television and radio who never actually met her, feel that they, too, lost someone close to them in the early hours of Sunday morning. It is a more remarkable tribute to Diana than I can ever hope to offer her today. Diana was the very essence of compassion, of duty, of style, of beauty. All over the world she was a symbol of selfless humanity, a standard-bearer for the rights of the truly downtrodden, a very British girl who Ã¢â¬â who transcended nationality, someone with a natural nobility who was classless, and who proved in the last year that she needed no royal title to continue to generate her particular brand of magic. Today is our chance to say Ã¢â¬Å"thank youÃ¢â¬ for the way you brightened our lives, even though God granted you but half a life. We will all feel cheated, always, that you were taken from us so young and yet we must learn to be grateful that you came along at all. Only now you are gone do we truly appreciate what we are now without and we want you to know that life without you is very, very difficult. We have all despaired at our loss over the past week and only the strength of the message you gave us through your years of giving has afforded us the strength to move forward. There is a temptation to rush to canonize your memory. There is no need to do so. You stand tall enough as a human being of unique qualities not to need to be seen as a saint. Indeed to sanctify your memory would be to miss out on the very core of your being, your wonderfully mischievous sense of humor with a laugh that bent you double, your joy for life transmitted wherever you took your smile, and the spar kle in those unforgettable eyes, your boundless energy which you could barely contain. But your greatest gift was your intuition, and it was a gift you used wisely. This is what underpinned all your other wonderful attributes. And if we look to analyze what it was about you that had such a wide appeal, we find it in your instinctive feel for what was really important in all our lives. Without your God-given sensitivity, we would be immersed in greater ignorance at the anguish of AIDS and HIV sufferers, the plight of the homeless, the isolation of lepers, the random destruction of land mines. Diana explained to me once that it was her innermost feelings ofÃ suffering that made it possible for her to connect with her constituency of the rejected. And here we come to another truth about her. For all the status, the glamour, the applause, Diana remained throughout a very insecure person at heart, almost childlike in her desire to do good for others so she could release herself from deep feelings of unworthiness of which her eating disorders were merely a symptom. The world sensed this part of her character and cherished her for her vulnerability, whilst admiring her for her honesty. The last time I saw Diana was on July the first, her birthday, in London, when typically she was not taking time to celebrate her special day with friends but was guest of honor at a fund-raising charity evening. She sparkled of course, but I would rather cherish the days I spent with her in March when she came to visit me and my children in our home in South Africa. I am proud of the fact that apart from when she was on public display meeting President Mandela, we managed to contrive to stop the ever-present paparazzi from getting a single picture of her. That meant a lot to her. These were days I will always treasure. It was as if we had been transported back to our childhood, when we spent such an enormous amount of time together, the two youngest in the family. Fundamentally she hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t changed at all from the big sister who mothered me as a baby, fought with me at school, and endured those long train journeys between our parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ homes with me at weekends. It is a tribute to her level-headedness and strength that despite the most bizarre life imaginable after her childhood, she remained intact, true to herself. There is no doubt that she was looking for a new direction in her life at this time. She talked endlessly of getting away from England, mainly because of the treatment that she received at the hands of the newspapers. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think she ever understood why her genuinely good intentions were sneered at by the media, why there appeared to be a permanent quest on their behalf to bring her down. It is baffling. My own, and only, explanation is that genuine goodness is threatening to those at the opposite end of the moral spectrum. It is a point to remember that of all the ironies about Diana, perhaps the greatest was this: a girl given the name of the ancient goddess of hunting was, in the end, the most hunted person of the modern age. She would want us today to pledge ourselves to protecting her beloved boys, William and Harr y, from a similar fate. And I do this here, Diana, on your behalf. We will not allow them toÃ suffer the anguish that used regularly to drive you to tearful despair. And beyond that, on behalf of your mother and sisters, I pledge that we, your blood family, will do all we can to continue the imaginative and loving way in which you were steering these two exceptional young men, so that their souls are not simply immersed by duty and tradition but can sing openly as you planned. We fully respect the heritage into which they have both been born, and will always respect and encourage them in their royal role. But we, like you, recognize the need for them to experience as many different aspects of life as possible, to arm them spiritually and emotionally for the years ahead. I know you would have expected nothing less from us. William and Harry, we all care desperately for you today. We are all chewed up with sadness at the loss of a woman who wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t even our mother. How great your suffering is we cannot even imagine. I would like to end by thanking God for the small mercies HeÃ¢â¬â¢s shown us at this dreadful time; for taking Diana at her most beautiful and radiant and when she had joy in her private life. Above all, we give thanks for the life of a woman IÃ¢â¬â¢m so proud to be able to call my sister: the unique, the complex, the extraordinary and irreplaceable Diana, whose beauty, both internal and external, will never be extinguished from our minds.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Some sociologists believe in-school factors are responsible for educational underachievement because of many reasons such as- subcultures, setting and streaming and Interactionism where teachers label a pupils likely performance which have an impact on that individual which can be in the form of racism. In opposition, some sociologists disagree because there out-of-school factors too such as; material deprivation, cultural deprivation and innate explanation theory. I have to discuss if in-school factors are responsible. On the one hand, sociologists agree that in-school factors are the cause for educational underachievement as subcultures within schools change through anti-school students. This is because several individuals in school ethos may experience peer-pressure or feel intimidated from their teachers and pro-students who make them conform a specific culture that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t value education such as; Ã¢â¬ËurbanÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËstreetÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore he/she could underachieve; they have anti-learning attitudes and a bad perspective of the school due to the expected code of behaviour from their teachers, which is failure, even know they may be smart. They start to accept their label as failure and displace the schools norms and values with their own where they bunk school, disrupt lessons and argue with teachers. Another reason is the educational system is unfair. Schools may give same test to all students however the test covers a less range of skills; memory, knowledge and logic. Therefore, some pupils have an advantage. Students who have mixed abilities, are shown as less able to achieve good grades as that test is excluding their best skills. The setting and streaming of a school can also be unfair. Some students are just thrown in lower sets (3,4,5) because of their behaviour rather than their smartness. So, teachers have lower expectations for them and may underestimate their abilities which causes them to underachieve even though they may be bright. The Interactionism theory is where school teachers can intentionally or unintentionally label students. They label students which is attached to that individual either as a good or bad stigma. But bad stigma can be very sticky to take off and it may result as a stereotype. Sociologists, Rosenthal and Jacobson experimented with the idea of labelling. They found out students that were told would be successful, achieved the highest by spurting as teachers believed in them more highly. This suggests labelling leads to self-fulfilling prophecy where pupils achievements are as good or bad as they were told. A bad label leads the individual to perform as badly as their teachers anticipated them to. As a result of this, they experience negative self-fulfilling prophecy that causes underachievement. Lastly, some schools can be institutionally racist. Some teachers can talk very slowly to different ethics, for example, African Caribbean boys because they have the sticky stereotype they are naughty and easily distracted. This can lead to African Caribbean boys accepting this therefore those ethnic minority pupils underachieve at school. Moreover, some schools have exams the day after Eid which can be racist as they donÃ¢â¬â¢t take into account Muslim students canÃ¢â¬â¢t revise for that particular test the day before therefore their self esteem is lowered. On the other hand, sociologists consider that out-of-school factors are responsible for educational underachievement. Sociologists believe that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes towards learning begin to develop at an early stage, in their home environment and these attitudes affect success of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s education later on in life. Working class or underclass backgrounds, or different ethnics like Afro-Caribbean and Bangladeshi pupils are likely to suffer from cultural deprivation as parents lack interest and expectations in education making the children feel they lack skills, knowledge and feel less confident at school. Middle class and Chinese students achieve more as they have more cultural capital where their parents take interest and have high expectations. So early stages of an individuals life affects their education at school. Sociologists agree that material deprivation impacts on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s success. By material deprivation you can experience lack of resources. For example, if you are poor, you have no extra resources such as; revision books, laptop or a private tutor to help enhance knowledge in learning therefore you can underachieve and in the long term in would impact on the individuals career. Bullying can be caused from material deprivation from the lack of appearance in- shoe, clothes, make-up, hair. It can cause the individual to worry so much about that situation that the student couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t learn up to her/his full potential. The innate explanation is the theory where some people are genetically less intelligent. This leads to sociologists arguing some students are just not clever as others therefore in-school factors are not at fault for educational underachievement. Gender differences is also an out-of-school factor. It is said girls outperform boys, this is believed to be because girls and boys are socialised differently when young. Their parents put their beliefs on gender stereotypes and encourage girls to read in doors however disprove if boys to read so they send him outside to play. Therefore girls have an advantage as they are learning from a younger age while boys start to learn at school. Moreover, boys are less involved in education and seem casual; this could lead to underachievement. Whereas girls are organized and interested. To conclude, I think sociologists would disagree in-school factors are responsible as out-of-school factors are more the origin of educational underachievement. This is because children education starts in the home environment. Also of cultural and material deprivation. If parents value education more greatly; and the parents educational backgrounds are high-level they take interest in childÃ¢â¬â¢s progress and help with homework therefore the students would be achieving confidently at their best potential. However children who suffer cultural deprivation are not motivated from an early stage. Children from poor families have no access to facilities to help them study at home. Yet in-school factors such as- peer groups and the setting and streaming off schools can be very unfair as they donÃ¢â¬â¢t test a range of skills.
Monday, July 29, 2019
The Relationship between Management and the Art of Rhetoric - Research Paper Example The definition of rhetoric, as proposed by Aristotle, encompasses not only theoretical knowledge but also takes into account the practical and productive aspects of knowledge. The meaning of rhetoric has been taken to be the Ã¢â¬Å"art of expressive speechÃ¢â¬ for a very long time. Therefore, rhetoric can be an instrumental tool for people who engage in delivery of speeches and require effective speechmaking skills in their daily conduct. Speechmaking is an important tool in the kit of managers of an organization. Every day, managers have to engage in activities that require them to communicate with their employees. This may include designating tasks to employees and briefing them about their jobs, motivating employees to work harder, appreciating the accomplishments of the associates and subordinates as well as the organization as a whole, giving constructive criticism to the employees regarding their jobs and communicating with the stakeholders of the organization such as the public. It is essential for managers to learn the art of speechmaking so that they can communicate effectively. The job of a manager is such that he or she has to use persuasion often in communication. Persuasion can prove to be a very beneficial tool for the success of the individual manager, and hence the organization. Persuading a hardworking and resourceful employee to stay in the organization if he or she is planning to join any other comp any can retain the labor skills of the employee in the organization. Using persuasive speech in press releases to convince the public that the organization is actively engaged in environmental protection and sustainable development can go a long way in promoting the reputation of the organization.Ã
Sunday, July 28, 2019
BERNOULLIS EQUATION AND CONSERVATION OF MASS, ENERGY AND MOMENTUM - Lab Report Example To find the flow rate you find the division between the volume and time taken to get 0.18kg/s. The percentage error was found to be 5.88% which is the rate of change of the theoretical value to the experimental value. The flow rate in the venture meter was established as shown in the calculation section. In the venture meter, the water is present in the three columns of manometers. The experiment did not matter if water was absent in every column. The two manometer columns were selected from where the measurements were taken. The diameters were recorded at the position where the manometer measured the static pressures. The heights of the fluids found in the manometer were recorded as shown in the calculation section. Using the application of the BernoulliÃ¢â¬â¢s equation and the conservation of the mass at the two positions. The fluid velocity at the two positions in the systems were determined. The computed values were reported as the calculations and measurements were undertaken. Based on the taken velocity measurements, the mass flow rate was determined of the flow at the two sections. The values were then computed and calculated as shown below in the calculation sections. The mass flow rate was determined be the measurement of one liter. The determined values were determined and the calculations and measurements were taken. Comparing the two mass flow rate, they were not the same. The discrepancy is due to the difference in the diameter of the two pipes. The group members moved the Pitot tube from the paperÃ¢â¬â¢s upstream to a place downstream (Welty, 2001). Looking at the manometer connected to Pitot tube it was realized that the liquid in the pitot tube did not move. The Pitot tube is used to measure the total pressure. The main objective of the experiment was to determine the force on the target from the impinging water jet. The experiment illustrated one of the
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Introduction to Business Law - Acts - Essay Example The Comstock Act of 1890, named after its chief proponent Anthony Comstock, was enacted to safeguard the society's moral fiber, aimed at safeguarding American society against the destructive effects of "obscene, lewd, and lascivious" books. Upon its enactment, it made it illegal to "selloffer to sell, or to lend, or to give away, or in any manner to exhibit, or shall otherwise publish or offer to publish in any manner an obscene book, pamphlet, paper, writing, or other representation of article of an immoral nature" (Comstock Law 1873). Despite its good intentions, which was meant to target pornography and birth control, which was considered immoral at the time, the act unknowingly, due to the lack of sophisticated understanding regarding artistic forms of expression, became a notorious censorship tool, prohibiting works of art and literature as well. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890, on the other hand, named after Senator John Sherman, was enacted to safeguard the country's economy against the monopolistic interests of large business owners and corporations, who controlled most of the economic means during the time.
Draft - Essay Example Consequently, this brought an understanding that the values and beliefs are connected to cultural practices, traditions and rituals that chances their way of life (Nel, 2012). The summary also elaborated on the issues related to the differentiation of the cultural practices, customs and traditions. It also elaborates on the inherent patterns of behaviors that are transmitted from one generation to another. The term custom is defined in the article as a practice, which regulates the social life of certain group in the society, while rituals are defined as forms of cultural practices or ceremonies making a certain change in the society. Moreover, the article indicated that the Africa societies are linked to the cultural practices, traditions and customary issues. Moreover, the article explained these rituals involve various physical markings on the body such as circumcisions or body scarification (Tiley-Nel, 2012). In this case, these rituals are different based on the ethnic groups, whereby the ritual practices are symbols of maturity stage. In conclusion, the paper covers a summary of two articles covered in class, which include Ã¢â¬Å"Ndebele culture, traditions and ritualsÃ¢â¬ by Tiley-Nel and Initiation cycles of traditional South African cultures by Nel, J. The articles cover a reflection of cultural, tradition and ritual practices in African society. The articles share ideas related to the practices among African society, which are practices in a contemporary society in the process of depicting the transition of the boys and girls to the adult hood. Therefore, this paper has focus on identifying the main points that are in these
Friday, July 26, 2019
Scientific Advancement in the 20th Century - Essay Example Instead of analyzing the problem on scientific basis, they have adhered to their timeworn ideologies with a practical surrender to the materialistic values in vogue. Even the torchbearers, the so-called intellectuals and modern scholars of any religion pretend to be abreast with the modern scientific thought have given in to the onslaught of modern sciences and in secret depths of their hearts feel nervous how to defend their position. They are doing more harms than good by defending their post with archaic weapons. Like the case of William James in his "Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature" wrote: Failure, then, failure! So the world stamps us at every turn. We strew it with our blunders, our misdeeds, our lost opportunities, with all the memorials of our inadequacy to our vocation. And with what a damning emphasis does it then blot us out! No easy fine, no mere apology or formal expiation, will satisfy the world's demands, but every pound of flesh exacted is soaked with all its blood. The subtlest forms of suffering known to man are connected with the poisonous humiliations incidental to these results. And they are pivotal human experiences. A process so ubiquitous and everlasting is evidently an integral part of life. 'There is indeed one element in human destiny,' Robert Louis Stevenson writes, 'that not blindness itself can controvert. Whatever else we are intended to do, we are not intended to succeed; failure is the fate allotted.' And our nature being thus rooted in failure, is it any wonder that theologians should have held it to be essential, and thought that only th rough the personal experience of humiliation which it engenders the deeper sense of life's significance is reached (Varieties, p. 138) The main reason of this fall to dishonor and disdain, is the writer's indifference towards scientific disciplines. It has put among the tail-enders in the world. An in-depth inquiry of human history reveals that our forefathers disseminated thought and philosophy to the whole world and founded numerous scientific disciplines. Had our forefathers not accomplished their pioneer work in the field of empirical sciences, the contemporary scientific disciplines could never have developed into their present status. They dawned in the words of William James and others1 with wisdom on the Western thoughts and drowned in murk and darkness of ignorance. This philosophy amply fled on our illuminating heredity. And we spared everything witlessly. The science is advancing by leaps and bounds. As shown in the William work, he was rightly proud of his superior evolutionary status among the comity of nations. As he keep the poor and the deprived dependent and subdued, he also intended to see the other religions under their subjugating authority. His philosophical thought and civilization is eating up geographical distances and the world spread over millions of miles has been reduced to Global village. Owing to scientific progress, deserts are being transformed into meadows and fertile fields. The mineral wealth is drawn to one feet. Scientific knowledge has enabled to bring all the natural sources under human control and consumption. This is, however, tragic to note that his scientific approaches are adamantly bent upon keeping the backward nations dependent and subdued. In this regards, the minorities are well-defined target. Like
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Rally Championship; Design - Coursework Example e other hand, Bacillus.cereus involves two important secretion systems that were responsible for toxin secretion and proteins such as Tat and Sec-SRP type. There are many benefits derived from some strains of Bacillus.cereus , it is used to treat crops disease and it does involve in a pesticide to prevent the fungi from plants .Although, this bacteria can be dangerous for human , the recent studies show that it has produced antibiotic toxins involving antibiotic B and zwittermicin A which are useful for plants to protect them from disease. Bucillus cereus is a gram Ã¢â¬âpositive bacteria and it is a rod shaped and facultative anaerobic organism. The first time it was discovered was in 1969 from mail patient who had fatal pneumonia (Hoffmaster.A et al , 2006). In terms to the environmental aspect , Bacillus .cereus is found in the soil and it is separated widely in the nature. Also, it is participate to microflora of insects and might found in plants(Vilain.S et al ,2006) Bacteria belongs to bacilli family and it is related genetically to Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus pseudomycoides, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus weihenstephanensis and Bacillus thuringiensis. These bacterium have the ability to secrete different types of toxins. (Drobrniewski .F ,1993)has given an interesting example which is Bacillus anthracis lead to Cause anthrax to humans and animals, whereas Bacillus cereus is caused food borne illness .In addition, Bacillus.cereus is often beta hemolytic that is breakdown of red blood cells in vitro, while Bacillus. anthracis is non hemolytic. It is possible that, some strain of Bacillus. cereus are harmful to humans and the other would be beneficial to a certain degree. This due to the fact that sometime Bacillus. cereus can product probiotics which is useful while it may tend to give rise in Food poisoning and gastroenteritis. These diseases have a main syndrome such as emetic and diarrhea the vomiting might cause by contaminated food by only
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Short Story Fiction. Choose one of the following topics; avoid long-winded plot summations - Essay Example Situational irony is present in Everyday Use, which enriches the understanding of the theme and its dramatic plot. Since the story begins with Dees domination of her family, readers may expect that she will continue to control her mother and sister and Ã¢â¬Å"ownÃ¢â¬ the quilts for herself. Dee knows that as the Ã¢â¬Å"educatedÃ¢â¬ one in her family, she can easily manipulate her family, who once when she read to them, were Ã¢â¬Å"sitting trapped and ignorant underneath her voiceÃ¢â¬ (Walker). The reversal of expectation happens, because Mama strongly opposes Dees demands for the quilts and decides to give it to Maggie. Apparently, the lamb can also change to a lion when needed. In addition, situational irony persists as a form of exploring the theme of traditional versus modern beliefs. When Dee arrives in a more Ã¢â¬Å"AfricanÃ¢â¬ ensemble, Walker seems to be inviting readers to think that Dee has changed and shed her superior ego complex. Instead of being humbled by co llege education, however, Dee becomes more enamored with the idea of subjugating rural life, especially its Ã¢â¬Å"backwardÃ¢â¬ (Walker) thinking and practices. Irony shows that Dee remains culturally immature, as she degrades how rural culture will see these old quilts as fit for Ã¢â¬Å"everyday useÃ¢â¬ (Walker), when for her, a learned African would see it as a precious piece of African heritage, one that is fit for display. Another situational irony example in this story is when Dee fully turns into a white oppressor, all the while believing that changing what she looks like and her name have turned her into a genuine African. Dee tells her mother that her new name is Wangero, because she could not stand Ã¢â¬Å"being named after the people who oppress meÃ¢â¬ (Walker). Dee also complains that her mother and Maggie remain completely ignorant of their Ã¢â¬Å"heritageÃ¢â¬ and she says: Ã¢â¬Å"Its really a new day for us. But from the way you and Mama still live youd never know itÃ¢â¬
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Perinatally Acquired HIV Infection - Term Paper Example With the advances in medical science, perinatal HIV-1 transmission rates in the United States have decreased strikingly due to an amalgamation of suitable measures taken; encompassing improved voluntary counseling and HIV-1 testing (VCT) for pregnant women, prevalent use of antiretroviral prophylaxis or combination of antiretroviral therapy, avoidance of breastfeeding, and elective cesarean delivery (Shetty, 2005). In some cases the preventive measures are not seriously taken and these missed opportunities are responsible for 300 to 400 HIV- 1 infected infants, born annually. It is the sole responsibility of the pediatrician to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV-1 by finding out newborns born to infected mothers. These mothers are not tested during pregnancy. Pediatrician must administer antiretroviral prophylaxis, and ensure follow-up to verify or eliminate the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in early infancy (Shetty, 2005). Estimates of the number of children infected with HIV in t he United States range from 10,000 to 20,000. Nearly all (90%) new HIV infections in children result from perinatal transmission. The overall incidence of perinatally acquired AIDS cases declined by 67% from 1992 through 1997 (Priority: HIV and AIDS). It is manifested that number of perinatally acquired cases increased each year between 1984 and 1992, the current results reveal the decrease in the statistics not only in terms of number of new cases but also a reversal of the previous cases (Priority: HIV and AIDS). Decline in perinatal transmission are attributed largely to the combined effect of both increased counseling and testing for HIV infection prenatally and the use of zidovudine (ZDV) therapy during pregnancy among HIV-infected women (Lindegren, 1999). The AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 076 trial demonstrated that ZDV therapy reduced perinatal transmission from 25.5% to 8.3%. it is also manifested that Standard therapy defined by the US Public Health Service (USPHS) emph asize upon oral administration of ZDV to the mother in the prenatal period, intravenous administration of ZDV during the intrapartum period, and oral administration of ZDV to the newborn (Mofenson, 1999). More effective counseling and testing prenatally makes it possible for a greater number of women and infants to benefit from antiretroviral therapy. It is observed that, some women still do not receive antiretroviral therapy during the antepartum period as recommended, it is therefore essential that the treatment schedule of - before, during, and after delivery of the ACTG protocol must be strictly followed to reduce the perinatal HIV infection, a noteworthy declines in perinatal transmission were examined since 1995 due to the speedy integration of this regimen into clinical practice (Mofenson, 1999). Healthy People 2010 Baselines and Targets for HIV/AIDS has included objective no. 13.17 for reducing new AIDS cases of perinatally acquired HIV infection to reduce the rate of infant mortality (Priority: HIV and AIDS). The table in the appendix indicates trends in AIDS and HIV cases in newborns for the years 1999-2003 in Chautauqua County. The rate is diminishing, indicates that over the period the number of newborns with HIV has reduced (Priority: HIV and AIDS). According to the Health People 2010 Initiative, 50% of HIV
Monday, July 22, 2019
The problem and its background Essay Education is the process of learning and knowing, which is unending. It is so significant in the lives of every people living in this world and it would not be an exaggeration to say that the existence of human being is fruitless without this. Education helps us to gain knowledge, think scholarly and apply knowledge into logical action for us to cope up with the problems, issues and challenges that our country is encountering in this present time, hence it is a holistic process and it continues through our life. The Philippines is facing various problems including high unemployment and low economic rate and at the same time the Educational System in the Philippines. Thus, the government is trying their best to improve the quality of education because they believe it is one of the solutions to solve this problem that is why Department of Education tries new strategies to improve the quality of education delivered to the students. The Department of Education had done so many surveys and reports so that they will be able to deal with the needs of the people and society. In 1925, the Monroe Survey was passed to Department of Education stated that the secondary education cannot prepare students for life that is why they suggested students to have training in agriculture, commerce and industry. In 1930, the Prosser Survey was passed to recommend improving vocational education such as 7thgrade shop work, provincial schools, and practical arts training in the regular high schools, home economics, p lacement work, gardening, and agricultural education. In 1970, the Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) suggested the implementation of 11-year program to improve the state of education in our country. They recommended the program to have a compulsory 6 years for elementary education and 5 years for secondary education or for high school. In 1991, the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) Report (1991) was passedÃ suggested if one year would be added to our education program, it would either be 7 years for elementary and 4 years for secondary education or 6 years for elementary and 5 years for secondary education. This report supported the survey of Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE). In 2000, the Presidential Commission on Educational Reforms suggested the establishment of one year pre-baccalaureate system. In 2008, Presidential Task Force on Education discussed our education program should add two more years that other countries are implementing it and because of this discussion the K-12 Education Program was formed. In 2012, the government is now implementing this program offered to Grade 1 and Junior High School Students. K to 12 means Kind ergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education. This model involves Kindergarten, six years of elementary education, four years of junior high school (Grades 7 to 10) and two years of senior high school (Grades 11 to 12). The two years of senior high school intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies (DepEd, 2010). The study was designed for readers to cope up with the current issue and to have a clearer understanding on the implemented K-12 Education Program. This study is important for readers to have a knowledge why the DepEd implemented this program and to compare it with the previous program consisting of 10 years. Fortunately the researchers have come up with this study because this is the latest issue and many editors and writers argue about the effectiveness of K-12 on the newspapers and magazines. This study intends to know the Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude of the parents of Pedro E. Diaz towards the K+12 program Implemented by the Department of Education recently. Background of the Study Nowadays Philippines is considered as one of the countries that has already low standard of education. Lack of budget and resources are the primary reasons on why the education system in our country was considered poor. Among other reason why a group of public school teachers remains critical of K+12. Due to this phenomena DepEd pursued a program that is believed to put the PhilippinesÃ¢â¬â¢ education system to higher grounds the K+12. The K+12 Program covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of seniorhigh school [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship. (Retrieved from discussion paper on the enhanced k+12 basic education program.pdf) The K+12 curriculum aims to enable every child Ã¢â¬Å"to achieve mastery of core competenci es and skillsÃ¢â¬ and develop tracks based on the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s interests and competencies. The focus of K+12 is twofold: curriculum enhancement and transition management. With the K-6-4-2 model, the 2 years for senior high school is aimed to giving the student time to strengthen competencies and academic skills. The curriculum will also provide specializations in the following: science and technology, music and arts, agriculture and fisheries, sports, business and entrepreneurship, etc, depending on the occupation or career that they intend to pursue. These two years will build on skills that are essential to their chosen field. DepEd is preparing a carefully sequenced implementation plan to ensure smooth transition with the least disruption in the current program. (Retrieved from discussion paper on the enhanced k+12 basic education program.pdf) Every graduate of the enhanced K+12 basic education program is an empowered individual who has learned, through a program that is rooted on sound educational principles and geared towards excellence, the foundations for learning throughout life, the competence to engage in work and be productive, the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities, the capability to engage in autonomous critical thinking, and the capacity to transform others and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self. (Retrieved from discussion paper on the enhanced k+12 basic education program.pdf) The adoption of the program is in response to the need to improve the competitiveness of our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s graduates as the ten-year basic education cycle is seen as inadequate for work and higher education. In fact, overseas Filipino workers are not automatically recognized as professionals in other countries that view the ten-year education program as insufficient. The Philippines is the only country in Asia and is one of only three countries in the world with a ten-year basic education cycle. (Retrieved from Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.htm) The K+12 education system is the public education system that most of us are familiar with today. Comprised of thirteen grades, kindergarten through 12th, the K+12 education system refersto all school system in the Philippines. It is difficult to pinpoint the exact history of education, as educa tion has been occurring in some from for centuries in all parts of the world. For the purposes of this article, we will explore the history of K+12 education system we know today as it applies primarily to the Philippines. Also, we would like to know the sides of the parents who are financing their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education. And in accordance to this the researchers expect that by the end of the study they could produce an instrument for the awareness of people in this K+12 project. Thus, this study gives importance on education, specifically on the part of mostly parents regarding on their awareness, knowledge and attitude on the k+12 program of the Department of Education. Theoretical Framework This study entitled Ã¢â¬Å"A Study on the Level of Awareness, Knowledge and the Attitude of the Parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School on the K+12 Program of the Department of EducationÃ¢â¬ will be using Input Process Output. Input Process and Output Model is defined as the graphical representation of all the factors that make up a process. An input-process-output diagram includes all of the materials and information required for the process, details of the process itself, and descriptions of all products and by-products resulting from the process. Elements of Input Process and Output Model * Input- The information, ideas, and resources used. * Process- Actions taken upon/using input * Output- Results of the processing. Input Process Output Model Conceptual Framework This study entitled Ã¢â¬Å"A Study on the Level of Awareness, Knowledge and the Attitudes of the parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School on the k+12 Program of the Department of EducationÃ¢â¬ will aims to quantify the Awareness, knowledge and attitudes of the respondents. Moreover, in order to have a deeper indulgent in this study the researchers logically applied the study on the Model Ã¢â¬â Input Process and Output Model. To meet the researchers objectives cited here, a step-by-step procedure would be first considered: First is the Input Element. The Input of this study are the following: Demographic Profile of the respondents, RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Socio-Economic Profile, Level of RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Awareness, RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Knowledge, Attitude(s) of the respondent and the relationship of the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Educational Background, Family Background and Socio-Economic Profile to their Identified Attitude(s) regarding on the k+12 Program of DepEd. These Inputs would be process, in the process. Second is the Process Element. This element or the process element processes the said input(s) of this study. In the process the researchers will conduct survey and analyze the collected data in order to come up a reliable and productive result. The last one is the Output Element. The output of the study would come from the processed data. The outcome of the processed data would be the Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude of the respondents. Application of IPO Ã¢â¬â Input Output Process Mode Statement of the Problem The researchers designed this paper to know the Awareness, Knowledge and Attitudes of the Parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School regarding on the K+12 Program of the Department of Education. The main problem of this study will focus on in the question: What are the level of awareness, Knowledge and the Attitude of the parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School on k+12 Program of the Department of Education? Objectives of the Study General Objective: To know the level of awareness, Knowledge and the attitude of the parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School on the k+12 program of DedEd. Specific Objectives: 1. To lay down the Demographic Profile of the respondents, in terms of their: a) RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Profile a1) Name a2) Age a3) Gender a4) Civil Status b) RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Educational Background b1) Elementary Graduate b2) High School Graduate b3) College Undergraduate b4) College Graduate 2. To know the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Socio-Economic Profile; in terms of their: a) Monthly income of parent(s) a1) 5000-10000a2)10001-15000 a3)15001-20000a4) 20001-25000 b) RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s State of work or source(s) of Income: b1) Employmentb2) Business Owner 3. To determine the Level of RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Awareness regarding on the K+12 Program of the Department of Education. 4. To know the RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Knowledge on the K+12 Program of DepEd. 5. To identify the Attitude(s) of the respondent toward K+12 Program of DepEd. Hypotheses: 1. The researchers hypothesized that most of the respondents are married and ages 45-55 years and most of them are college undergraduates. 2. The researchers hypothesized that most of the respondents are unemployed since on the first hypothesis of the researchers is that most the respondents are college undergraduates so that they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to have a work whether Private or Government. 3. The researchers also hypothesized that most of the respondents of this study are living on apartment type or boarding house as their nature of occupancy since it is really hard to have or to own house and lot especially in commercial or in urban places. 4. The researchers hypothesized that most of the respondents have monthly income which ranges from P5000-10000 because most of them are college undergraduates. Even though theyÃ¢â¬â¢re belonged on the lower part of the social strata their children are still studying. It is because that Filipinos believed on education that is the only key to success. 5. The researchers hypothesized that most of the respondents are aware on the K+12 program of the Department of Education due to the easy access on the information from TV, Radio, Internet or Newspapers. 6. The researchers hypothesized that a big number of respondents are insufficient on the knowledge about the k+12 Program of the Department of Education though there is an easy access to information that information is inadequate to give knowledge on the part of the respondents, the researchers believed that face-to-face communication is better than mediated means. 7. The researchers hypothesized that a great number of respondents are unfavoured on the k+12 program of DepEd because the researchers believed that the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s capability such on financial state on the sudden implementation of this program is not enough. Significance of the Study K to 12 Curriculum is an innovative education system. This area of education has a dominance over the usual educational systems as it puts more weight on thinking and reaching own self-explanatory conclusions. To the Readers This study is primarily for the concern of the readers especially the parents who will shoulder most of the saddles of this new education program. But parents should be motivated of what this K to 12 education plan could offer to their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s future. This is important because parents play a major role in providing for their childÃ¢â¬â¢s allowances, supplies and other fees in school. Add to that, the support and effort of teaching and guiding their children. Since K to 12 offers a more balanced approach to learning that will enable children to acquire and master lifelong learning skills, therefore, K to 12 graduates will have higher earning potential since they will be more competent and skilled compared to graduates of the current 10-year system. Aside from the parents, it will be the students who will benefit a lot from this new education system. Students will be free to pursue their passion. They will be given enough attention and will be given the chance to choose ele ctives that will suit their needs. Students will be more equipped, enriched and ready enough to face reality Ã¢â¬â the career world. To the Researchers As researchers, we get to be aware of the advantages of this program on how it can help and improve the quality of life of the country as a whole. Through having this research, it can change your wrong intuition about K to 12. And this will serve as a future reference. To the Educators Educators will also take a big part on this program. They will be playing bigger roles towards the students. Primary need of teacher education programs is to design and implement powerful uses of technology that will provide the students with more effective and challenging experiences. Educators would undergo different seminars and programs in relation with the K to 12 education system. It will help teachers to be more equipped in teaching and it will be a professional development tool that boosts their confidence to integrate the latest technology in the classroom. To the Filipinos Once this new program succeeds, it is best hoped that Filipino students would be more literate, capable, and competitive to be able to find jobs more easily and contribute to the countrys pride as well as the countrys economy. The Philippine education system will be at par with international standards. K+12 will facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals in other countries. Lastly, a better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socio-economic development. The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education system will contribute to the development of emotionally and intellectually mature individuals capable of pursuing productive employment or entrepreneurship or higher education disciplines. To the Department of Education This would be a great assist on the institution with the data and results that would be gathered and prepared by the researchers, the Department of Education would have an information based material that will be useful in developing the said program. Scope and Limitations The researchers limit the study on the level of awareness, knowledge and the attitude(s) of the Parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School about K+12 education program. This study looked into the discernment of parents regarding the issue of K+12, as well scrutinizes the benefits they assumed to be develop from this issue. The researchers limited its study into 50 respondents via random sampling technique. Only parents from Grade 7 students of Pedro E. Diaz High School were involved. The study will be conducted from the month of July to the month of October year 2012-2013. Definition of Terms *Attitude- it is a manner, disposition, feeling, position, etc., with regard to a person or thing; tendency or orientation, especially of the mind: a negative attitude; group attitudes. Position or posture of the body appropriate to or expressive of an action, emotion, etc.: a threatening attitude; a relaxed attitude. (Retrieved from www.attitude.org.nz/) Awareness -is the state or ability to perceive, to feel, or to be conscious of events, objects, or sensory patterns. In this level of consciousness, sense data can be confirmed by an observer without necessarily implying understanding. More broadly, it is the state or quality of being aware of something. In biological psychology, awareness is defined as a humans or an animals perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. (Retrieve from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Awareness) * Curriculum-In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum came fr om the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults. A curriculum may also refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfil in order to pass a certain level of education. (Retrieved from www.ibe.unesco.org) * Dominance-superior development of one side of the body, the power or right to give orders or make decisions. (Retrieved from dictionary.reference.com) * K+12-are a designation for the sum of primary and secondary education. It is used in the United States, Canada, Philippines and Australia. PÃ¢â¬â12 is also occasionally used in Australia. The expression is a shortening of Kindergarten (K) for 4Ã¢â¬â6-year-olds through twelfth grade (12) for 16Ã¢â¬â19-year-olds, the first and last grades of free education in these countries. (Retrieved from wikipedia.org) Knowledge- it is Human faculty resulting from interpreted information; understanding that germinates from combination of data, information, experience, and individual interpretation. A information that changes something or somebodyÃ¢â¬âeither by becoming grounds for actions, or by making an individual (or an institution) capable of different or more effective action. ( Retrieved from www.businessdictionary.com/definition/knowledge.html#ixzz21sSOrnbY) * Motivation- is a process that elicits, controls, and sustains certain behaviours. Motivation is a group phenomenon that affects the nature of an individuals behaviour, the strength of the behaviour, and the persistence of the behaviour. (Retrieved from dictionary.reference.com) Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter includes some related literature and studies of foreign and local researchers which are presented in the following paragraphs. Foreign Literature Regarding knowledge, Palmer (1998) emphasized that people should acquire appropriate range of knowledge, understanding, and concepts about the environment so that critical judgment can be achieved. Further, experiences and reflection in the environment should be allowed to refine Ã¢â¬Å"environmentally focused skills, further relevant knowledge, and development of appropriate attitudes and environmental awarenessÃ¢â¬ (p.146). Orr (1992) reflected upon the concept of forming attitudes in order to build on ecological literacy. This ecological literacy should not be interpreted as the knowledge of facts and concepts only, but Ã¢â¬Å"the knowledge necessary to comprehend interrelatedness, and an attitude of care or stewardshipÃ¢â¬ (p.92). Therefore Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge, the attitude of caring, and a practical competence are the basis of an ecological literacyÃ¢â¬ (Orr, 1990, p.51). Madsen (1996) emphasized the concept that awareness is the ultimate driving force that stimulates know ledge. The acknowledgement that an environmental problem exists entails being more cognizant of the facts about the state of the environment. Ã¢â¬Å"This degree of environmental awareness involves a personal commitment to work to solv/e environmental problemsÃ¢â¬ (p.72). He emphasized the power behind the awareness factor by categorizing three levels of awareness as: basic belief of an environmental problem, factual and scientific knowledge, and a commitment to solve environmental problems. Athman and Monroe (2000) stated that awareness and knowledge of environmental processes and systems play an important role in EE. However, these are not the only factors affecting the behavior outcome. Behavior is what people do, whether it is environmentally appropriate or inappropriate (Hernandez Monroe, 2000).Behavior in general is supported by knowledgeand attitude but there is not a direct cause-and-effect progression from knowledge to attitude to behaviour (Monroe, Day, Grieser, 2000). Awareness was studied along with environmental knowledge and concern by Hausbeck, Milbrath and Enright (1992).In this study the authors concluded that awareness and concern scores were significantly higher than knowledge levels.They linked this result with the fact that a primary source of environmental information is electronic media (NEETF, 1998, p.14), where as awareness and concern can be picked up with little substantive knowledge (p.31). Some predictors of environmentalism using the NEP 2000 instrument were: age, education, and political ideology (Dunlap, Van Liere, Mertig, Jones, 2000). Rovira (2000) concluded in an evaluation of parents, that environmental consciousness might be influenced by social factors such as social position, age, and level of education. The awareness, knowledge, and attitude of the parents can de influenced with the socio-economic and educational factors. Morrone, Mancl, Carr (2001) included socioeconomic status (SES) as one of four factors in a stud y related to ecological knowledge. Respondents from low SES did not perceive environmental threats as seriously as did other respondents. Low SES respondents also rated themselves as more informed about the environment than did students and minorities. Ã¢â¬Å"Parents play a vital role in the development and education of their children. Parents and families have the primary responsibility for the development of their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s character, with the support of their school and community. In addition, research clearly indicates that good schools become better schools when there is a strong connection with parents as part of the learning community. Thus, parents play an important role within the school community, but also through the attitudes they help to shape, and the direct supports they provide to their children.Ã¢â¬ The researchers want to conclude that the knowledge, awareness and attitude of parents can have an impact on the acceptance of K+12 Education system that our government has now implemented. Local Literature The researchers would want to focus now about K+12. It has long been a popular notion that any attempt to lengthen the required number of years in basic education will be faced with a howl of protests, particularly from parents who will bear the brunt of additional expenses and students who will have to spend more years in school. IÃ¢â¬â¢m really searching to actively engage them towards a consensus because it would be pointless to come up with the program that is good objectively but is not acceptable to people. Ã¢â¬Å"So I always feel itÃ¢â¬â¢s important that we engage people. I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s a matter of explaining to them, but also engaging them because IÃ¢â¬â¢ve gotten some very good inputs and suggestions from people. So I think our task is to respond to their concerns and anxieties. K+12 program pg 9 K+12 arenÃ¢â¬â¢t meant to be the pill that cures the illness that pervades Philippine education. The most obvious component is the additional two years that will be added to the basic education cycle (that and the inclusion of universal kindergarten). For President Aquino, k+12 will give public schoolchildren Ã¢â¬Å"an even chance at succeeding.Ã¢â¬ In the long run, it is the education initiative that supposed to open doors for economic advancement to young Filipinos. This envisioned becoming one of the Aquino administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s most significant accomplishments towards producing a highly-skilled and educated citizenry and building a more robust economy. If substantial improvements in the quality of public basic education can be introduced through k+12 the department argues, our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s gross Domestic product can increase by 2 percent. It has also been pointed out that k+12 can help spur the entrepreneurial climate in the country. Ultimately, therefore, K+12 hopes to go beyond lengthening the basic education cycle. It hopes to empower our students, allowing them to complete more effectively for jobs abroad, have their academic credentials recognized automatically in other countries without the benefit of tertiary e ducation. Among the 115 Unesco member-states, the Philippines os said to be one of only three countries (the other two being Djibouti and Angola) that maintains a 10-year pre-university education system. Proponents argue that shifting to a 12-year basic education cycle will give more time for teachers to teach a subject and for students to absorb what is being taught in school. The introduction of k+12 is thus envisioned to help solve some of the most pressing problems facing Basic education: low achievement test scores, a congested curriculum, and the inadequate preparation of high school students for work and college. Deped has pointed out that our 10-year basic education system produces graduates below the age of 18, which means they are too young to either enter the labor force or start a business on their own. K=+12 program pg.11 By 2020, the Philippines will join the APEC Trade Regime. Before these two events happen, we have to prepare our graduates to be globally competitive. There are no other alternatives but to align our degree programs with those of other countries.Ã¢â¬ This is the main reason that the members of the Presidential Task Force for Education (PTFE), particularly CHED, are rushing the addition of at least one more and even two more years to our education cycle. All other countries in the world have 15 or 16 years of education from Grade 1 to undergraduate graduation. The Philippines has the shortest education cycle in the world (only 10 years of public basic education and usually only 4 years of undergraduate education, for a total of 14). European countries have 12 years of basic education and 3 years of undergraduate education. The United States and Asia-Pacific countries have 12 years of basic education and 4 years of undergraduate education. (Myanmar is an exception because it has only 11 years of basic education before 4 years of undergraduate education. India is also an exception, because it has only 3 years of undergraduate education after 12 years of basic education.) Mutual recognition of qualifications and degrees will be undertaken by ASEAN countries and the rest of the Asia-Pacific region. Thus, HEIs [Higher Education Institutions] must prepare for it now. The qualifications of our graduates must be improved to meet our development goals. Isagani R. Cruz pg.103 A good example of how equivalencies work is the Washington Accord (1989), an international agreement that specifies that a professional engineer must have gone to school for at least 16 years if she or he wants to practise in another country. With on ly 10 years of public basic education and even with 5 years of engineering, we are still one year short. Another often-cited international agreement is the Bologna Accord (1999), which specifies that professional accountants, pharmacists, physical therapists, and so on should have at least 3 years of undergraduate education in addition to 12 years of basic education. Again, our 14-year education cycle is one year short. In fact, since most Filipinos want to live and work abroad anyway, there is no reason to think that ensuring employment abroad through equivalent local education will be met with resistance. The answer is simple: students and parents cannot afford the extra year of food, clothing, shelter, and lost income. Isagani R. Cruz pg.104-105 Fortunately,we have a Philippine best practice to guide us in this matter of length versus content. When De La Salle University shifted from a semestral to a trimestral system in 1981, teachers had to rethink their syllabi. It was not just a matter of teaching 18 weeksÃ¢â¬â¢ worth of material in 14 weeks. That would have been not just impossible, but pedagogically unsound. The expected learning competencies per subject, and therefore the entire curriculum, had to be revised. It is, therefore, not just a matter of saying that there should be a Grade 7 or a Fifth or Sixth Year High School or a Pre-University Year in college. Just as important as the decision on when to add the missing year or years is the decision on how to change the entire curriculum to make it rational and effective. Isagani R. Cruz pg.108-109 It is also clear that we cannot add the missing year to elementary school, because we would have to wait 7 years for a Grade 1 student to finish Grade 7, 4 more years to finish high school, and 4 more years to finish college. Isagani R. Cruz pg.111 CHED wants to solve a problem (the lack of years) of basic education through higher education. That, of course, seems inappropriate, because CHED is not supposed to worry about basic education. The second thing is to understand that the extra year should focus on subjects that will prepare the student for college work (Ã¢â¬Å"collegeÃ¢â¬ as defined by Harvard and Oxford). Isagani R. Cruz pg.112-113 The Presidential Task Force for Education (PTFE) has hit upon the correct solution to this mismatch. It recommends that we should not expect everybody to go to college. The PTFE recommends that high school graduates be streamed into either college or technical-vocational (tech-voc) programs. For tech-voc, our current ten-year basic education cycle is enough. With some improvements to be brought about by moving some college General Education Curriculum (GEC) subjects down to high school, the public school system should be able to prepare students to go into a tech-voc program that may take anywhere from one to three years. Everybody goes through six years of elementary school and four years of high school (plus preschool and kinder garten, where feasible). This is the DepEd cycle as we now have it. After high school, everybody takes an exam. Those that pass the exam may go to the university stream. Those that do not pass the exam may go to the polytechnic stream (polytechnic sounds much better than tech-voc). The Final Report of the Presidential Task Force for Education (PTFE) contains several recommendations to reform our educationalsystem. Many of these recommendations are not new, but were widely discussed and agreed upon in earlier surveys, such as the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM, 1992) and the Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER, 2000). (Isagani R. Cruz pg.114-115) There are numerous questions concerning the issues and problems existing in the Philippine Educational System as to how we can resolve it the best way we could to attain that kind of quality of education we have been searching and longing for. Where do we begin and how do we respond to such? Public schools are the building blocks of our societies. They can be considered our foundational instruments. Although these venues of learning play significant roles, they are unable to provide the best they can, due to their numerous flaws. As IÃ¢â¬â¢ve gone through different readings and researches, questions were arising in my mind as to what solutions are applicable in addressing the problems about the quality of education, affo rdability, budget, mismatch, integration of sex education in the curriculum, R.A. 9710 (Magna Carta for Women) and other concerns which are somehow related to it. I will always stand for what I believe in according to my observations that we have good guidelines and policies on education but what is lacking is the ability to implement such in accordance to the needs of every school, majority of which belong to the public education system. Generally, Philippine Education aims to provide quality and free education both for the elementary and secondary public schools but again this have not been observed and understood well causing it to be a burden most especially to the students and parents. www.essays.se//Local+literature+about+educ Foreign Studies The researchers would want to focus on the outcomes of the K-12 education system to other countries. In fall 2005, 757,116 students wereenrolled in grades K-12 in ColoradoÃ¢â¬â¢s public schools, ranking 22nd in the country in terms of total state K-12 public school enrollment (NEA 2005). Researcher Tom Mortenson of Postsecondary Education Opportunity calculates a ninth-grade studentÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"chance for collegeÃ¢â¬ by age 19 in each state and nationwide by combining high school graduation rates with rates of student college-going. In Colorado in 2004, a ninth-grader had a 42.2% chance for college by age 19. Nationwide, the chance for college is just 38.1% Colorado ranks 15th on this indicator. Of the peer states used in this report, only Minnesota ranks higher, with a chance for college of 54.6% (Mortenson, 2006).In 2002, 57.3% of high school graduates in Colorado continued directly on to post-secondary education. This is slightly higher than the national average of 56.6%. In a study conducted for the Department of Local Affairs, researchers convened directors of ColoradoÃ¢â¬â¢s regional Workforce Investment Boards. These officials reported difficulty finding qualified applicants for both entry-level and skilled positions, and concerns about a lack of basic skills in the workforce (Blansett and Gershwin, 2005). According to the conclusion of Learning Together: Assessing ColoradoÃ¢â¬â¢s K-12 Education System conducted by Center for Education Policy Analysis at the Graduate School of Public Affairs and University of Colorado at Denver And Health Sciences Center, Colorado could and should be doing better in educating K-12 students. Notably, t heir stateÃ¢â¬â¢s struggles with educating traditionally at-risk students has resulted in student achievement and high school graduation gaps that are among the largest in the country. If they were to make substantial progress on closing these gaps, their achievement statistics would quickly rise to the top. Many of their peer states face greater challenges than they do in terms of state-wide poverty and diverse student populations, yet they have managed to find greater success with closing gaps. Until Colorado finds the collective will, the leadership, and the resources to solve this problem, they will continue to be average when they could be outstanding. Local Studies The 1987 Philippine Constitution puts special premium on education and accords it with the highest budgetary priority. Article XIV, Section 1, in particular, explicitly provides: Ã¢â¬Å"The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels.Ã¢â¬ Article XIV, Section 5(5) clearly mandates the State to Ã¢â¬Å"assign the highest budgetary priority for education.Ã¢â¬ However, despite these constitutional guarantees, current performance indicators showed a dismal picture of the quality of education in the country. Participation rates have worsened; dropout rates remain high and the Philippines continue to perform poorly in both national and international assessment tests (Policy Brief, 2011). As a response to this issue, the DepEd is pushing for the passage of a law that will implement the so-called K to 12 program, which will institutionalize pre-school and add two more years of high school in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s basic education cycle. However, in light of the tight fiscal situation and the mounting demands coming from all other sectors, the increasing cost of living and the additional burden that this measure will entail particularly for households, it is important to determine whether K to 12 is a viable and critical program that needs to be pursued (Ibid, 2011). Philippine Business for Education (PBEd), a group of top businessmen who are pushing for education reforms, welcomed governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s strong resolve to finally put in place a decades-old proposal for a K+12 basic education cycle. Ã¢â¬Å"The K+12 gives to the masses the extra years of schooling that for many years has only been available in private elite education institutions. Studies have shown that every additional year of schooling improves the income potential of a student as she/he enters the world of workÃ¢â¬ (Malipot, 2010). The government wants to improve the quality of education not only for private education institutions but also for the public education institutions in the Philippines and as a result of that, the country will have higher employment rate. However, the problem that can arise from the implementation of K+12 education system is the acceptance of the parents. It has long been a popular notion that any attempt to lengthen the required number of years in basic education will be faced with a howl of protests, particularly from parents who will bear the brunt of additional expenses and students who will have to spend more years in school (Educator Magazine, 2011). The government is trying different strategies on how the parents will have awareness and knowledge on the K+12 Education Program. Ã¢â¬Å"[Former DepEd Secretary] Br. Andrew Gonzalez used to say, Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢m really searching to actively engage them towards a consensus because it would be pointless to come up with a program that is good objectively but is not acceptable to people. There should be political will, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s not like we ram things down peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s throats. You have to win them over, you have to explain-thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a very long processÃ¢â¬ (Ibid, 2011). Luistro qualifies. Ã¢â¬Å"So I always feel itÃ¢â¬â¢s important that we engage people. I think itÃ¢ â¬â¢s a matter of explaining to them, but also engaging them because IÃ¢â¬â¢m gotten some very good inputs and suggestions from people. So I think our task is to respond to their concerns and anxietiesÃ¢â¬ (Ibid, 2011). After two months of regional consultations, Education Secretary Armin Luistro revealed that the proposal was able to get support from 1,274 out of 1,417 participants or 77 percent in the 17 regions. Among the stakeholders, DepEd found that the most supportive group is the students. The program got 100 percent support from Regions IVA, IVB, V, VII, VIII, XI, and XIII (Caraga).But Luistro admitted that there are still many sentiments against it. Stakeholders in Region IX, for example, presented a lot of concerns and reservations. Out of 45 attendees, only six or 13 percent showed support to the program. In the NCR, the K+12 Education program was able to get support from 67 out of the 94 participants or a grade of 71 percent (Malipot, 2011). CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research design, sample and sampling technique, instrumentation and statistical treatment of the data used in the development of this study; the most convenient and precise methods were used that enabled the researchers to obtained functional information. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD For this study Ã¢â¬Å"A Study on the Level of Awareness, Knowledge and the Attitudes of the parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School on the k+12 Program of the Department of EducationÃ¢â¬ , the researchers used Quantitative approach. In Quantitative research, the process is formal, objective and systematic in which numerical data are utilized to obtain information about the world. Moreover, this study is descriptive in the manner of interpreting the data. As pointed by John W. Best, in descriptive research, the variables and procedure are described as accurately and completely as possible so that the study can be replicated by other research. Thus, the researchers used the Quantitative Descriptive Approach and Design since it lent itself to the identification of the actual conditions relative to the K+12 curriculum and the relationship of the respondents with the recurring situation. The research method used in this study was Survey Questionnaire Method. Survey Questionnaire method ac cording to Cruz et.al. (2011) is a set of questions, which is intended for the problem to be answered by the respondents. This is usually accompanied by clear and concise directions, which are sent to the respondent by mail or hand carried. This method is relatively simple and inexpensive for it requires small staff to handle it. A standard set of questions can be prepared and the respondents may feel a greater sense of freedom to express views and opinions because their identities are not known. For this study the parents of Pedro E. Diaz an answer the questionnaire with privacy at their own convenience. Sample and Sampling Technique For this study, the group used probability technique specifically the random sampling in deriving or in determining the sample of this study. In random sampling, this is done by getting a certain percentage of the population to be included in the study. In this research 25 % of the total population is used. In relation to this study, the parents of Grade 7 students, randomly selected, from Pedro E. Diaz High School were the Study sample. Research Instrumentation The instrument that was used in this study to gather pertinent data needed in this study is survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire was developed by the researcher anchored with the research objectives. The items were organized based on the Level of Awareness, Knowledge and the Attitudes of the parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School on the k+12 Program. The survey questionnaire consists of the following: Demographic Profile, RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Socio-Economic Profile, Level of respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Awareness on k+12, RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Knowledge on K+12 and Attitude(s) of Respondent on K+12. Data Gathering Procedure The researchers asked permission to administer the questionnaire checklist from the school authorities concerned which included the Principal of Pedro E. Diaz High School. After the approval of the authorities concerned, the researchers distributed personally the questionnaire to 50 parents on July 2012. The questionnaire checklists were therefore administered to all 50 parents. The retrieval of the instrument was through one week after the questionnaires have been distributed. With the fully cooperation extended to the researchers by the teachers the 100% of the distributed instrument was retrieved. Statistical Treatment of Data The researchers used the random sampling technique to the get respondents. The 25 % of the population is used, thus: Population = 200 parents Population x 25 % = 50 respondents The data was obtained was tallied and tabulated. Tables and figures were used to illustrate the data gathered for presentation, interpretation and analysis. All data obtained from the responses to the questionnaire-checklist were collected and tabulated after which they are statistically treated using this percentage and weighted are on rank order. Chapter 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter shows analyzed and interpreted tables of the information gathered. 1. Demographic Profile Table 1.1 Age (Class)| Frequency| Percentage| 29-32| 2| 4%| 33-36| 7| 14%| 37-40| 5| 10%| 41-44| 12| 24%| 45-48| 12| 24%| 49-52| 9| 18%| 53-56| 1| 2%| 57-61| 2| 4%| | Total=50| Total:100%| The respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ percentage of ages 41 to 44 is 24 %, same with ages 45 to 48. The least percentage is 4 % which falls on the respondents aging 57 Ã¢â¬â 61. Table 1.2 Gender| Frequency| Percentage| Female| 42| 84%| Male| 8| 16%| | Total=50| Total:100%| There are 42 females which is 84 % of the respondents, wherein there are 8 males which is 16 % of the respondents. Table 1.3 Civil Status| Frequency| Percentage| Separated| 3| 6%| Widowed| 2| 4%| Married| 44| 88%| Single| 1| 8%| | Total=50| Total:100%| The 88 % of the population is married. The least percentage is 8 % which belongs to single respondents. Table 1.4 RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Educational Background| Frequency| Percentage| Elementary Graduate| 3| 6%| High School Graduate| 32| 64%| College Graduate| 12| 24%| Others: (College Undergraduate)| 3| 6%| | Total=50| Total:100%| The table shows the educational background of the respondents. 64 % of the respondents graduated from High School, 6 % is Elementary graduate same with College Graduate. 2. RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Socio-Economic Profile Table 2.1 RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Monthly Income| Frequency| Percentage| 5,000- 10,000| 30| 60%| 10,001-15,000| 11| 22%| 15,001-20,000| 3| 6%| 20,001-25,000| 6| 12%| | Total=50| Total:100%| The table shows the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ monthly income. The 60 % of the respondents have an income ranging from 5,000 to10, 000. The 22 % has an income ranging from 10,001 to 15, 000. The least 6 % has an income ranging from 20,001 to 25,000. Table 2.2 RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Source of Income| Frequency| Percentage| Employment| 41| 82%| Own Business| 9| 18%| | Total=50| Total:100%| The table shows the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ sources of income. The 82 % of the respondents are employed privately while the 18 % of the respondents have their own business. 3. Level of respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Awareness on k+12 Table 3.1 RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Awareness| Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 38| 76%| No| 12| 24%| | Total=50| Total:100%| The table shows the level of awareness of the respondents. The 76 % of the respondents are aware of the K+12 Program while 24 % of the respondents do not know exactly the program. If Yes, Table 3.2 In Media| Frequency| Percentage| Radio| 8| 21.67%| Newspaper| 9| 24.17%| TV| 13| 33.33%| Internet| 4| 10.83%| Others:| 4| 10.83%| | Total=38 | Total:100%| The table shows where the aware respondents acquired the information. 33.33 % of the respondents get the information from television; 24.17 % get the information from newspaper; 21.67 % from radio; 10.83 % from internet and 10.83% get the information from other ways. Table 3.3 Awareness of RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s on Additional 2 years in Basic Education| Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 39| 78%| No| 11| 22%| | Total=50| Total:100%| The table shows the awareness of respondents on the additional 2 years in the basic education. The 78 % of the respondents are aware of the additional years while 22 % of the respondents are not aware of the additional years. Table 3.4 Awareness of RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s on Required Kindergarten on Education | Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 40| 80%| No| 10| 20%| | Total=50| Total:100%| The table shows the awareness of the respondents on required kindergarten on the education. The 80 % of the respondents are aware of the required kindergarten while 20 % of the respondents are not. 4. RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Knowledge on K+12 Table 4.1 RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Knowledge on Required Junior and Senior High School before Entering College| Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 32| 64%| No| 18| 36%| | Total=50| Total:100%| The table shows the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge on required Junior and Senior High School before entering college. The 64 % of the respondents know about the required years while 36 % of the respondents do not. If yes, Table 4.2 RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Knowledge on technical and minor course in Senior High School| Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 26| 81.25| No| 6| 18.75| | Total=32| Total:100%| The table shows the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge on technical and minor courses in Senior High School. The 81.25 % of the respondents know about the courses while 18.75 % of the respondents do not. 5. Attitude(s) of Respondent on K+12 Table 5.1 RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Attitude on K+12| Frequency| Percentage| Yes | 35| 70%| No| 15| 30%| | Total=50| Total:100%| The table shows the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude on K+12 Program. The 70 % of the respondents agreed on the Program while 30 % of the respondents do not. Table 5.2 Degree of Favorableness| Frequency| Percentage| Strongly Agree| 7| 14%| Agree| 26| 52%| Neutral| 17| 34%| | Total=50| Total:100%| The table shows the degree of favourableness of the respondents who agreed on the K+12 Program. The 52 % of the respondents agree on the said program while 14 % f the respondents strongly agreed and 17 % of the respondents are neutral. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter shows the conclusions and recommendations of the researchers. Conclusions After doing the survey to the selected respondents, the researchers arrived at the following conclusions: 1. Most of the respondents are aware of the K+12 Program regardless of their educational background. 2. The main source of the information to the program is through television and many from the respondents are aware of the additional 2 years to the basic education curriculum. 3. Most of the family of the respondents is having an income that is not enough to sustain and support the additional years for education. Recommendations: The researchers recommended the following: 1. The respondents for the future researches should be more than on this previous study. 2. The respondents must be categorized properly to get a reliable information from Filipino families. 3. The survey should be improved in scope and in reliability. 4. A longer duration of study is commended to achieve more accurate results. BIBLIOGRAPHY Athman, J., Monroe, M. (2000). Elements of effective environmental education programs. Retrieved July 27, 2012 from Recreational Boating Fishing Foundation: http://www.rbff.org/educational/reports.cfm Blansett, S.P. and M.C. Gershwin. (2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Developing a Statewide Work Readiness Credential in Colorado: A Preliminary Assessment.Ã¢â¬ Report to the Colorado Workforce Development Council. Denver CO: Colorado Department of Local Affairs. Center for Education Policy Analysis, Graduate School of Public Affairs,University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center. (2006). Learning Together: Assessing ColoradoÃ¢â¬â¢s K-12 Education System. Denver CO: Colorado Department of Local Affairs. Colinares, Nilo E. (2010). 21st Century trends, issues and challenges in Philippine Education keynote speeches/public policy statements/opinionated pronouncements by CHED.Philippines. Dunlap, R., Van Liere, K., Mertig, A., Jones, R. (2000). Measuring endorsement of the new ecological paradigm: a revised NEP scale. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 425-442. Hausbeck, K., Milbrath, L., Enright, S. (1992). Environmental knowledge, awareness and concern among 11th grade students: New York state. The Journal of Environmental Education, 24, 27-34. Hernandez, O., Monroe, M. (2000). Thinking about behavior. In B. Day M. Monroe (Eds.), Environmental education communication for a sustainable world. Handbook for international practitioners. (pp. 17-22).Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development. Cruz, I. (2010). Education Reform in the Philippines. Century trends, issues and challenges in Philippine Education keynote speeches/public policy stateme nts/opinionated pronouncements by CHED. Madsen, P. (1996). What can universities and professional schools do to save the environment? In J. B. Callicott and F. J. da Rocha (Eds.), Earth Summit Ethics: toward a reconstructive postmodern philosophy of environmental education. (pp. 71-91). NY: Albany State University of New York Press. Malipot, I. (2010). K+12 Program Supported, Manila Bulletin. (pp.8) Malipot, I. (2010). Are you ready for K+12, Manila Bulletin. (pp.8) Monroe, M., Day, B., Grieser, M. (2000). GreenCOM weaves four strands. In B. Day M. Monroe (Eds.), Environmental education communication for a sustainable world. Handbook for international practitioners. (pp. 3-6).Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development. Morrone, M., Mancl, K., Carr, K. (2001). Development of a metric to test group differences in ecological knowledge as one component of environmental literacy. The Journal of Environmental Education, 32, 33-42. Mortenson, T. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Chance for College by Age 19 by State, 2004.Ã¢â¬ Postsecondary Education Opportunity, no. 169. Oskaloosa, IA: The Mortenson Research Seminar on Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Postsecondary Education. National Education Association. (2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Rankings and Estimates: Rankings of the States 2004 and Estimates of School Statistics 2005.Ã¢â¬ Washington DC: Author. NEETF (1998). The national report card on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors: the seventh annual survey of adult Americans. National Environmental Education and Training Foundation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED433214) Ontario Ministry of Education. (2010). Parents in partnership: A parent engagement policy for Ontario schools (draft).Toronto: Author. Orr, D. (1992). Ecological literacy. Education and the transition to a postmodern world. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Palmer, J. (1998). Environmental education in the 21st century: theory, practice, progress and promise. New York: Routledge. Rovira, M. (2000). Evaluating environmental education programs: some issues and problems. Environmental Education Research, 6, 143-155. Senate Economic Planning Office. (2001). K to 12: The Key to Quality Education?. Philippines: SEPO Policy Brief. Teves, G., Nilo, A. Valarao,C. (2011). K+12 in Focus. Educator Magazine. (pp. 8-25)
Social Networking Site Essay Social networking sites are popular amongst student recent years. Some of the popular social networking websites are Facebook, Twitter Google+. Almost all the students would definitely have a profile in those sites. These facebook like sites will be taken up by students as for fun but some may start using it as fun and gets addicted to it. This article shows you the advantages and disadvantages of social networking sites for students. Advantages: Here is a list of advantages of using the social networking websites: 1. The main advantage of social networking site is that it helps in establishing connection with people, friends and relatives. It helps in sharing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s view, share pictures and lots of other stuffs. 2. It helps students in interacting with one another and share ideas. This helps in improving studentÃ¢â¬â¢s creativity. 3. The social networking websites can be accessed from any part of the globe. This helps the students to establish communication with their teachers and friends through which they can improve their knowledge. 4. Social networking sites are not only used by the students for sharing pictures, videos or it is not only meant for fun and entertainment. Through social networking sites like Facebook, LinkedIn one can become a member and can also post relevant information about campus drive. 5. Through these sites the students can establish contact with entrepreneurs, corporate people and can gain valuable information from them. 6. Social networking sites have taken a new dimension called marketing. Certain websites offer advertisements to its subscribers. Disadvantages: Every coin has two sides. Whenever there comes the point of advantages, disadvantages also comes into picture obviously. So some of the disadvantages are: 1. One of the major disadvantages of using social networking websites are the students get addicted to it. They used to spend hours in those social networking sites which can obviously degrade the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s academic performance. 2. Some students may tend to use to these social networking sites till mid night or even more which can obviously lead to health related problems. 3. Some students may spend time in Facebook through which they lack to spend time with their family members. This can also be a disadvantage also. 4. Some students may provide detailed
Sunday, July 21, 2019
The Use Of Microsoft Excel Computer Science Essay Microsoft Excel, popularly called as Excel is a versatile software application and is a part of the Microsoft Office Suite applications. It is a full-featured spreadsheet program that allows the user to perform a specific work related to decision making in the areas of business and economic applications. The specific work may be related to organizing statistical data, performing statistical and mathematical calculations, drawing inferences related to statistical applications, drawing graphs and charts based on the data availability, and also help in developing professional looking of reports. For better understanding, excel can be divided in three major heads: Parts Function Worksheets It allows the user to enter, calculate, manipulate and analyze data of both numerical and textual Charts and graphs Charts and Graphs are the pictorial representation of data series. Excel helps the users to represent the data to draw two-dimensional and three-dimensional column charts, pie-charts and many other types of charts and graphs. Databases The third important function of Excel is of managing data. For instance, once the user entered a set of data in the excel worksheet, it is having the facility to sort the data, if required, can search specific data, and can select that specific data that is needed by the user. STARTING EXCEL? There are a number of ways to start in Excel. The one possibility is to click on the START button, then select PROGRAMS from the start menu and finally, click on Microsoft Excel. The second possibility is to create a shortcut of the MicrosoftExcel icon on the desktop. When excel needs to open, double click on the icon directly. The third possibility is that if the user is already developed a spreadsheet file by assigning a name to that file, then the procedure is to double click on that file. For example, there is an excel file which is saved by a user in the file name namita.xls. Double clicking on the icon of this file will directly open this file. All the above three operations will display white grid in the screen with rows of menus and icons at the top of the screen. EXPLORING THE WINDOWS: When Excel is opened, mostly two types of windows appears on the screen namely the application window and the document window. The identification of the application windows is one that contains running program and they have menu bars. Where as, the document window appears inside the application window without the menu bars. FIGURE-FA1 Following are the brief descriptions on various uses of different bars. a. Title bar: It shows the name of the application, document, group, directory, or file. If more than one window is open at a time, the title bar for the active window (that window where the user is working at present) has a color or intensity different from the other title bars. b. Menu bar: This bar contains the available menus from which the user can choose command based on his/her need. c. Tool bar: The tool bar(s) provides the user with a quick method of working with various parts of the worksheet. Tool bars can be displayed on the screen based on the use of the user. They can be customized and also multiple tool bars can be displayed at the same time. d. Scroll bar: The scroll bar(s) enable the user while moving the spreadsheet when the entire spreadsheet is not coming within the display area in the computer screen. Here the user has to click the scroll arrows with the mouse to move through the spreadsheet or to see one line at a time. e. Window border: The window border is the outside edge of a window. The user can change the window size by lengthening or shortening the border on each side of the window. f. Commands: Commands are accessed through the menu bar of the file. The user has to select the menu item and then the commands associated with that menu will be displayed. The user has to click on that command which he/she required. g. Formula bar: It displays any formulas, address, or variables used to get the information in the cell. The pictorial description of an Excel workbook is derived in Figure-FA2 below. FIGURE-FA2: AN EXCEL WORKBOOK WORKING IN THE SPREADSHEET: A spreadsheet is a tabular form of values arranged in rows and columns. When an Excel file is clicked, a workbook is opened. The normal file type in Excel is referred as a workbook. Hence, spreadsheets are created on the worksheets. The first blank workbook displayed in the monitor of the computer is called Book1. Each workbook contains sheets which are called as worksheets when they contain in spreadsheet. But when include a graph is called as chartsheet. Workbooks are rectangular grid containing columns (vertical marked A, B, CÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.Z, AA, AB,AC,Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦AZ..) and rows (horizontal marked numeric values 1,2,3,4,Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.). Thus, a letter above each column identifies each column and a number on the left side of the grid identifies each row. Each worksheet in a workbook has 256 columns and 65,536 rows. Cells are the building blocks of plants and animals Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦and spreadsheets too! Just like living cells do inside the living organisms, spreadsheet cells similarly can perform many functions. The cell is the basic unit of the worksheet and the data is entered in a cell. Each cell can be identified by a unique cell address otherwise called as cell references, which is the interaction of a column and a row. In order to identify a cell the column letter is specified first followed by the row number. For example, in the above figure-FA2 the highlighted single cell reference is B4 (as B stands for column and 4 stands for row). Similarly, multiple cells can also be identified by the user. In such a case, the user has to identify an active cell first, then hold the left mouse button, then drag to down and have to move the mouse right based on the desired numbers of cells. This facilitates all cells within that range will be highlighted. Data has to be entered in the active cell. The active cell in the workbook can be identified by a heavy border surrounding the cell. In addition, the active cell is listed in the reference area immediately above column A and row 1 referred as A1. NATURE OF DATA: Three types of data are generally entered in a workbook. They are: Nature of data Description Text To identify a set of work, some identification is needed. These identifications are expressed in qualitative descriptions. For example, titles of work like A regression analysis, Household budget analysis, etc. and for identifying the columns it also requires the textual variables like sales, productions, income, expenditure, profit, interest, etc. Numbers Numbers is the second items that can be entered in a workbook. Numbers consists of the digits zero through nine (i.e., 0, 1, 2, 3, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦, 9) and some special characteristics like +, -, ( ), /, . , $, %, #, etc. Formulas One of the greatest advantage of Excel application is the usefulness of formulas. A formula is a sequence of the values and the cells reference in a cell that produces a new value by using the existing values which is available with the user. Formula can be entered in uppercase or lowercase, and space can be added between the arithmetic operations to make the formulas easier to read. The detailed use with formulas is carried out in below derived sections. CREATING A WORKSHEET: A sample worksheet is created in Figure-FA3 below for the better understanding of the readers. First of all the user has to is to enter correct values in the required cells. Once the required information are entered in the cell the user can make the whole worksheet attractive by using some formatting options like bold text, different alignment and adding multiple colors to various texts to make the matter easily distinguishable and so on. Few easy steps of entering data are derived below. Click with mouse on the desired cell (in our example it is A2) Press the ENTER key from the key board to switch to next cell (or use Arrow key) or click on the next cell through mouse Type the column title to identify your variable (like A3 for the data of GDP, in B3 data on Agricultural sector, C3 Industrial sector etc.) By using step-2, enter the entire data in columns A, B, C, and D Then click in B2 to enter the next title of the data and enter data in each cell till it completed. Enter the data in other columns based on the availability of data. After entering the data, the entire spreadsheet will looks like as. FIGURE-FA3: A Sample Worksheet If the user has noticed any mistake while entering a data in a cell, then by using the back space key that value can be corrected. On the other hand, in case of mistakes in any cell where the data is already entered, make that cell as active cell. When the user clicks on a cell, the value entered in that cell is displayed in the formula bar of the worksheet. By using the backspace at the formula bar the mistake needs to be corrected. HOW FORMULAS WORK: The basic concern of this book is to narrate the detailed use of calculations by using the formulas and its execution procedure. Each formula has to be entered with the formula operator which is the equal sign i.e., =. When an equation sign is entered in a cell, Excel understands that whatever will be followed will be either a numeric value or may be an address of the cells which must contains a numeric value. For example, =C6 implies put in the value that is in the cell with the address of column C and row 6. For the better understanding of the readers, the process of working with formulas is discussed in three different heads below: Simple mathematical calculations Data analysis and Drawing charts 1. Simple Mathematical calculations: Data are the raw materials for spreadsheets. They generally are of constant values or simple values. Mathematical calculation by using the available data can be done by using formula (s). Hence, formulas are the command that instructs Excel to carry out a calculation. There are four independent basic mathematical operations and group operations of these four types can be easily carried out in Excel. The operators used for mathematical calculations are: Operator Pronunciation Task Operator Pronunciation Task + Plus sign Addition * Asterisk Multiplication - Minus sign Subtraction / Forward slash Division % Percent Per cent ^ Hat Exponentiation Absciant and Text Joining Addition: Any two or more values entered in separate cells can be added by using formulas. The first step is to start with =SUM(beginning cell address:ending cell address) and then press the ENTER key. In figure-FA4 below, a user wants to sum two values entered in cell A2 and cell B2 and wants to get the value at column F3. The formula has to be entered as written in the figure in F3 column and by pressing the ENTER key the value will be displayed as 28.66. In the second process the user can add different values entered in different cells by using the + sign. For example, =first cell address+second cell address+Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦, then press ENTER key. Let suppose that the user wants to add only three values viz., A2, B3 and A4 and wants the result to be displayed in cell G3. The formula will be as displayed in the G3 column and after pressing ENTER the value will be displayed in that cell as 42.47. Excel makes it easy to quickly add a column or row of numbers. To illustrate the AutoSum feature, consider the above Figure-FA4. Let that the user wants to sum value entered in B column. Click on cell B6 which is the active cell, then click on the AutoSum botton displayed in the tool bar with a sum symbol like Ã ¢Ãâ Ã¢â¬Ë and click on ENTER key for the value. In such a case, the sum function automatically selects the values of the entire column. Here the user is not required to enter the address of all the cells manually. The AutoSum value of the data entered in column B as displayed in B6 cell is 60.21. ii. Subtraction: Two or more values can be subtracted by using the - operator. The formula can be used as = first cell address-second cell address then press ENTER key. For example, one wants to subtract two values entered in cell B3 to A4 by using the values of above Figure-FA4 and wants to get the value in F5 cell. The formula will be as displayed in the F5 column and after pressing ENTER the value will be displayed in that cell as 5.26. FIGURE-FA4: VARIOUS MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS Multiplication: two or more values can be multiplied by using the multiply operator *. The formula can be used as =first cell address*second cell address*Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ and then press ENTER key. Let for example, one wants to multiply three values as entered in cell A1, B2 and A4 by using the values of above derived Figure-FA4 and wants to display the multiplication value in cell G4. The formula will be as displayed in the G4 column and after pressing ENTER the value will be displayed in G4 cell as 2533.073. Division: For the use of division in Excel, the / operator is used. The formula will be =first cell address/second cell address and then press ENTER key. For example, one wants to divide two values entered in cell B4 to A2 by using the values of above Figure-FA4 and wants to get the value in G5 cell. The formula will be as displayed in the G5 column and after pressing ENTER the value will be displayed in that cell as 1.378. Group expressions: In many calculations the situation demands for a grouped calculation. In such calculations parentheses (or brackets) are used to combine two independent functions into a group. The rule is that any part of the formulas expressed within the brackets is done first and the next operation is carried out then after. For example, the expression 8+3/2 will be 9.5 where as (8+3)/2 will be 5.5. Similarly, the value of 7+3/2 is 8.5 (not 5) where as (7+3)/2 is 5. Group calculations in Excel can be done as: =(first cell address then the operator(let it be +)second cell address, so on)the next operator (let it be *) by the constant value 2 (or if the value is entered in any cell then the cell address of that cell). By using the above Figure-FA4, some other possibilities are illustrated for the better understanding of the reader. Table-TA1: MATHEMATICAL FORMULA MODELS By using Formula in Excel Value Multiplication and Addition =(E2+E4)*2 then ENTER key =(E2+E4)*C3 then ENTER key 52 330.2 Multiplication and subtraction =(B3-E3)*5 then ENTER key 16.05 Multiplication and Division =(E4*A4)/3 then ENTER key 61.65 Addition and subtraction =(A3+A4+E3)-B4 then ENTER key 20.64 There are many other such possibilities of calculating values by using the group function. To illustrate the concept more clearly, an attempt has been made to calculate the PAY ROLL in Excel of few employees in the Box-A1 derived below. Box-A1: CALCULATION OF PAY ROLL OF M/S. DIKSHYA INDUSTRIES PVT LTD Mr. J.P.Voga, since his joining as the Managing Director of M/S. Dikshya Industries last month had passed various resolutions in his industry. One such resolution is that the salary of its 385 employees should transform to their accounts positively on the 1st day of each month. Mr. P.K. Jha, the Head, Accounts Department of that industry, is a retired government auditor who is well habituated with manual calculations. But after joining this industry, he is learning the use of Excel since last few months casually as he managed himself with this industry with his earlier expertise. But, Mr. Vogas order pressurized him a lot and he at the end finalized to develop the pay roll of each departments of the industry in Excel. For this he approached Mr. Vinay Jalota, his sub-ordinate at office who is at the post of Assistant Finance Officer at his industry. They decided to formulate separate pay roll for each department separately. Since, Mr. Jha is formulating the pay roll for the first time , they decided to start with the IT-Department of the company which is having 16 employees starting from the top management to the bottom employee. The steps followed are as follows: Step-1: In the first place it has been decided to divide the pay calculation in two separate heads like Basic and Allowances and the second phase is the deductions. The basic and allowances section consists all the gains to the employees i.e., credit amounts and the deduction section consists of debit amounts or looses to employ. Step-2: From the model pay roll attached in Figure-FA5 one can find that column A and Column B are the serial numbers of the employees and the name of the employees along with designation and basic pay respectively. Step-3: Column C is the number of days in that month that the employee had worked. The entry 31 in this column indicates that this month is having 31 days (this calculation is on May 2010). One can see that against each employees 31 is entered which implies all have worked in this month without any without pay. Step-4: Then in column D salary is calculated in respect of the basic of each employee separately. The formula =ROUND(VALUE(21400/B3*C6),0) is entered. In this formula, ROUND(VALUE is entered to round the fractions to nearest 0. The entry 21400 is the basic of the employee and it is first divided by B3 column i.e., to get per day salary of that month and then multiplies by C6 which is the number of days the employee worked. That is out of the 31 days in May how many days that particular employee worked. Once this formula is entered then copy the formula and paste it in the D7 column to get the salary of the next employee. But the basic of each employee differs. Hence, new basic needs to be edited in the copied formula in the formula bar. In this way in column D salary for each employee has been calculated. Step-5: Column E is the addition of the 50per cent of employees. The formula entered as =ROUND(VALUE(D6/50%),0). As one can see D6 column estimates the basic salary based on the number of days that employee worked on that month. A 50% of this amount has been calculated. Then copy this formula and paste it against each employee in column E. Since this formula is fixed for all, hence, there will be no change in the formula. But this formula doesnt fit for that employee who is in consolidated pay salary. Step-6: Column F is the added value of column D and column E. This amount will be the basic salary amount of the employees. The formula entered for calculation is =ROUND(VALUE(D6+E6),0). This formula is remained unchanged against all employees who are in the regular pay scale, of course except those who are in consolidated pay scale. Step-7: Based on the total amount calculated in column F, 64% is to be added as DA allowances. The formula is =ROUND(VALUE(F6*64%),0). This is applicable for all the employees except consolidated pay packagers. Step-8: Special amount per month has been fixed by the employer based on the basic of each employee. This amount as applicable has been added against each employees. The formula is = ROUND(VALUE(4600/B3*C6),0). This formula implies that per month special amount is Rs. 4600. this amount is first divided by total days in that month (B3) to get per day amount and then multiplied by numbers of days the employee worked in that month (C6). Step-9: HRA is at the 5% of the total salary calculated at column F. Hence, the formula is = ROUND(VALUE(F6*5%),0). But those employees who are residing in the quarters provided by the Industry are not entitled to get this amount. Hence, these columns for some employees are left vacant without any calculation. Step-10: Similarly Transportation, Traveling and other allowances, Medical, extra special allowances, Personal Pay and Telephone allowance as per applicable has been separately calculated by using the same logic i.e., at first divided by numbers of days in that month and then multiplies by numbers of days the employee worked. For example, the formula for Transportation is = ROUND(VALUE(400/B3*C6),0) i.e., Rs. 400 is the medical allowances. Similarly, Traveling is calculated by the formula = ROUND(VALUE(6000/B3*C6),0) and so on. Step-11: The Gross salary of each employee will be the addition of total amount of the above allowances. In column P row 6 i.e., in P6 to calculate the gross salary of the first employee the formula is = (F6+G6+H6+I6+J6+K6+L6+M6+N6+O6). This formula then copied and past in against all the employees in P column. The format in Excel sheet is shown in figure-FA5 below. Step-12: Then deductions are to be deducted from the gross salary of each employee. The items include TDS, EPF, License Fees, Maintenance, Electricity, and Advance. Among these items, the items like TDS and EPF are applicable for all the employees but the amount differs based on the gross salary. There fore, these amounts as per applicability have been simply entered in the respective column of each employee. License fee is applicable to those who are the residents of industry provided quarters. The formula is = ROUND(VALUE(F7+G7*10%),0). This implies that, license fee is the 10% of total column plus DA i.e., F7+G7. The readers should not be confused with the entry of row 7 in the formula because employee entered in the model pay roll is not a resident of industry provided quarter. Similarly, the residents of industry quarters have to pay Maintenance and Electricity. Electricity bill is not fixed for each employee rather depends on their consumption, thus fluctuates from employ to em ploy. Hence, are entered directly against the employee. Where as maintenance is the 10% of the license fee calculated in column S. The formula is = ROUND(VALUE(S7*10%),0). FIGURE-FA5: PAY ROLL FORMAT Step-13: The net payable or net salary of each employee is calculated as the total gross salary (column P) minus the deductions. The formula for the first employee is =P6-Q6-R6-S6-T6-U6-V6. Simply copy the formula and pasted it against each employee. The deduction portion of the model pay roll is shown in the Figure-FA6 below. Step-14:.Then by setting the pay roll worksheet by using the page setup options, the page can be printed by using the print option. FIGURE-FA6: PAY ROLL FORMAT (DECUCTIONS) This process when over surprised Mr. Jha. He could not believe him self that a person who is not touched the key board since last more than 30 years successfully developing a complete format of pay roll in Excel. This task of Mr. Jha increased his self confidence. Data analysis: Excel can perform a very large number of functions, which are formulas that perform a specific calculation beyond simple mathematical calculations. When the FUNCTION option in the INSERT menu is selected, it will display a large number menu of functions. This task of the Excel is more useful by the researchers for the simple statistical and econometric analysis of data. Excels FUNCTION option is very simple and hence, user friendly than other available statistical packages like SPSS, LIMDEP, STATA, STASTICA, GRITL, E-VIEWS, etc. But one think that the users should keep in mind that Excels data analysis wizard is not helpful for advanced data analysis purposes. Rather it is best suit for the beginners, particularly for the students and entry level researchers. Following are the steps of using the FUNCTION button in Excel worksheet for the purpose of drawing some statistical inferences. The first step is to create a data base in the worksheet containing the data series to be calculated. Then, click on INSERT button on menu bar and choose FUNCTION button. A small Excel window will appear showing the dialogue box. The user has to select the type of analysis it requires. The window is sheen as displayed in Fgure-FA7 below. The best option is to go for All type which will display all the options available under this function. FIGURE-FA7: INSERT FUNCTION USE Then specify the function (i.e., whether analysis is a standard deviation or correlation analysis, and so on.) Input the required cell address as per the need of the function and click OK. The final result will be displayed by the Excel application. The above steps can be well understood with a step wise calculation of CORRELATION between two variables as derived in Box-A2 below. Readers who are interested on the subject of correlation are advised to refer chapter-14 for a detailed analysis. Box-A2: Indian Textile Industry: Domestic Purchase is the Key The Indian textile industry faces many challenges in its efforts to become a major player in the global arena. Though it has many positive factors such as a multi-fibre raw material base, low cost labour base and big domestic market, it has been severely affected by insufficient power supply, steep increase in minimum support price for cotton and announcement of minimum wages on one side and stiff competition from other textile producing countries like China, Pakistan and Bangladesh. However, among the variables that positively influence the growth of the industry, the share of domestic purchase plays a very crucial role. For this we are having around eight years data on the total production of Indian textile sector and total domestic purchase by the Indian households. The detailed data set is shown in the Table-TA2 below. TABLE-TA2: TRENDS IN DOMESTIC PURCHASE (Quantity measured in million meters) Year Total Production Domestic Purchase 2000-01 40333 17969 2001-02 41390 19154 2002-03 41311 19860 2003-04 41721 20957 2004-05 44685 21784 2005-06 48808 22859 2006-07 52665 24030 2008-09 55023 25493 Source: Compiled from industry data base. In order to know whether there really exists strong relationship between the two variable i.e., between the total production of textile and domestic purchase, the correlation between the two variables are calculated with the help of Excel software and the steps followed in the process of calculation are outlined below: Step-1: The above data set is entered in the Excel spreadsheet and the file is saved as Correlation Analysis.xls. Step-2: The FUNCTION button from INSERT menu has been selected. Step-3: The window is now asking to specify the required function. In the Data type option All has been selected. Then CORREL option for correlation analysis is to be selected. The window appears as: FIGURE-FA8: INSERT FUNCTION WITH CORRELATION OPTION Step-4: When OK button is clicked, the next window will flash by asking for specifying the data range. In Excels language it is referred as Array1 and Array 2. Array 1 asks for first data series and Array 2 asks for second data series. In our above data set, year is only for the purpose of interpretation. Hence, while calculating the correlation value the column containing the Year data is not considered. After specifying the two data cell range, the window will looks like as FIGURE-FA9: FUNCTION ARGUMENTS IN CORRELATION ANALYSIS Step-5: By a click on OK button shows the value of correlation between the two variables which is measured by coefficient of correlation as 0.9559. The simple interpretation of the value says that both the variables considered under study are related with each other by up to 95 per cent. In other wards, there are other 5 per cent of variables, except domestic purchase contributes to total production of textile in India. Hence, the policy makers are to be serious enough with this result and they should pave necessary step to strength the domestic market for further growth of textile industry. Using Analysis tool pack Beside the FUNCTION option, data can also be analyzed by using the Analysis Toolpack and Analysis toolpack-VBA options. In some computers, these packs are not loaded automatically. To load this option in the computer click on TOOLS in menu bar and click on Add-ins. A small window asking the addition will display in the screen. Tick on the two options i.e., on Analysis Toolpack and Analysis toolpack-VBA with mouse and then click OK. The window will be as: FIGURE-FA10: INITIALIZATION OF ANALYSIS OF TOOL PACK For using the analysis tool pack, in the first place enter data in the Excel sheet and save the sheet by assigning a name. Then click on TOOLS and select DATA ANALYSIS option. A small window will appear showing numbers of statistical options. Specify on the desired one based on the need through mouse. From the below derived Excel window one can see that the regression option has been selected. FIGURE-FA11: DATA ANALYSIS OPTION FOR REGRESSION An OK click in the above process opens another window asking for specifying the cell address of the data series based on the desired statistical analysis. The user has to specify the cell address where as some functions need adjustments on basis of statistical properties and nature of the study. In order to explain the above steps more clear a Box-A3 has been developed below where by taking the sectoral growth rate, a multiple regression result has been calculated in Excel sheet. Box-A3: Contributions of regional sources in growth acceleration A nation is an aggregation of its regions. Thus, if we add the incomes of all states (regions), we should get the national income. This premise does not strictly hold in India given the problems in measurement and the data availability issues for more states and union territories. However, such problems are not considered serious in terms of magnitude and are, therefore, ignored in India [Dholakia, 2009]. In order to derive the contribution of states in the national growth acceleration the growth rate of the states during 1991-92 to 2003-04 for all the three sectors and the growth rate of the economy as a whole has been considered. The relevant concept of income is the gross state domestic product (GSDP) originating within the geographical boundary of the state and is measured at constant (1993-94) prices. The raw data is then converted into natural logarithms by taking ln value to make the data smooth one. A multiple regression model has been developed by considering the lnGSDP as dependent variable (Y) and other three variables i.e., contribution of primary sector (referred as lnPRI), contribution of secondary sector (referred as lnSECO) and the contribution of Tertiary sector (referred as lnTER) are considered as the dependent variable. Step-1: Enter the data in Excel sheet. Step-2: Click on TOOLS and select DATA ANALYSIS option Step-3: Select Regression option and click on OK. Step-4: The regression is now asking to specify the cell address of Y value and the cell add