Saturday, August 31, 2019
Born on April 13, 1933, Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell is one of the few politicians of note who rose in the political circles carrying proudly his Indian ancestry. Ã¢â¬Å"He is proud of his Native American heritage. Ã¢â¬ His sense of pride and loyalty to his roots and to his culture was seen through his actions as well as through his clothing; it was as if he was wearing his culture, identity and heritage. For example, he was seen wearing Ã¢â¬Å"ceremonial tribal clothingÃ¢â¬ as he attended the opening of the National Museum of American Indian (NMAI) . It was considered as a Ã¢â¬Å"major aspectÃ¢â¬ that has created, established and sustained the overall Ã¢â¬Å"personaÃ¢â¬ that is Senator Campbell all throughout his life, especially during his political life . CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s personality of hinging so much of who he is as he presents himself to the public on his being a Native American Indian was just enough for people to forget that there were actually men who preceded Campbell who, just like him, were partly Native American Indian and also won elected public office. One of them served in an office even higher than CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â and that would be Charles Curtis, who would eventually become the first vice president of the United States who is a Native American Indian. Ã¢â¬Å"The highest elected office ever held by an Indian in the US was the vice presidency . Ã¢â¬ Unlike Campbell, Curtis was from the Kaw tribe hailing from Kansas. In his vein was quarter of blood from this tribe. Also, he was an attorney before getting elected, unlike the more blue-collar type of jobs that Campbell pursued early in his life before shifting to jewellery designing and production later on. Nonetheless, both elected men are good and honorable men who made the Native American Indian community proud. But even with men like Curtis and how they were Ã¢â¬ËbiggerÃ¢â¬â¢ men politically, the Indians appreciate CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts at staying with his packaging as the American Indian holding office at the senate and at the congress. This personality/attitude more than compensates for the fact that he was not the first of his kind. Ã¢â¬Å"Although not the first Native American senator, he is the first to make a statement with his Indianness. Ã¢â¬ Indeed, he, too, was a record maker of sorts, and in many ways. This is what the paper will explore throughout the discussion on the different aspects of personal and political life of Senator Campbell, who, in November 3, 1992 made a historic feat by becoming the first American politician with Native American roots to be elected as a senator. It was something that hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t happened in more than the six decades that has passed in the senate history prior to his election to the office. Prior to that, he became the sixth politician with Native American heritage and ancestry to be ever elected to the congress, a seat that was given to him through the votes of the public for three times . Senator CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s Indian heritage is no secret. In fact, it seems that it is one of his many major personal characteristics that the media, as well as his colleagues, often refer to or address, particularly his being Indian, and his respectful stature in the Indian community, like being a Northern Cheyenne Tribe chief, a position he and only 43 others possess . Because of CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s pride towards his heritage, his people in return are doing ways to let Campbell know that his act of holding on to his Native American Indian roots and not covering it up with modern day personality just to suit his high echelon colleagues and. So that he will suit their taste for a particular company, his native Cheyenne are going out on a limb just to celebrate the victory of one of their most accomplished sons. For example, many Cheyenne individuals joined the parade. Some of them spent as much as they can spare just to lavish Campbell and the parade with the decorations fitting to the act of congratulations coming from the Cheyenne tribe. Some actually spent more than they could spare just so they can claim Campbell as their own and they can show how proud they are of Campbell. Ã¢â¬Å"Six of the riders were Northern Cheyenne, who had bankrupted themselves to show the world that Campbell was one of their own . Ã¢â¬ Despite his Indian American / Native American Indian roots, Campbell was a Catholic from the time his mother, also a devoted catholic, had him baptized when he was still a baby by bringing him and his sister Alberta to a church to be baptized just close to the time Campbell was born, until the time when he seemed to have had a falling out with the Catholic faith. But Campbell, during his adult life and especially during his tenure as public office politician, drifted from religion, and proof of this is the item Ã¢â¬Å"unspecifiedÃ¢â¬ marked on the space allotted for the identification of religious affiliation of the individual. This distinction, again, made Senator Campbell someone who is different from the rest of the field in the 106th Congress. He was the only one whose religious affiliation was unspecified, although there were no clear explanation(s) why such was the case Ã¢â¬â it could be anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s guess, from clerical error, mistake, or other reasons . His sudden dissociation with the Catholic faith was a surprising turn of events for Campbell. There are many good things that the Catholic faith has done for Campbell, especially during his youth. For example, there is the role of the faith during the times they were sent to the orphanage by their parents because they cannot take care of him and his sister because of their motherÃ¢â¬â¢s sickness and their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s alcoholism and inability to financially support them. While the Catholic faith and the orphanage system had their share of bad reputation, history points how the Catholic experience was a relatively good one for Campbell. In retrospect, Campbell recalled how the nuns and priests, who took care of him when his parents were unable to take care of him, treated him well. In his recollection of his days with these priests and nuns, as he narrated it for his biography published in book form, he mentioned just several instances wherein he was punished like being sent inside a pig pen to be with a huge pig. The reason for his pains against Catholicism maybe rooted in the things that he never verbalized, in the things which he only referred to as painful memories of his childhood, some of which he experienced in the orphanage . If he saw flaws in the orphanage, then it is not surprising if he also saw flaws in Catholicism because the two are one and the same during his youth.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The brains of young people growing up Ã¢â¬Å"hyperconnectedÃ¢â¬ to the Internet might be wired differently from those of their elders, suggests a recent survey of technology experts, who were split on whether the newfangled wiring is desirable. Researchers from the Pew Research Center and Elon University recently conducted an opt-in, nonrandom, online survey of 1,021 technology stakeholders and critics. Participants were asked which of two predictions about teens and young adults seem more likely by 2020Ã¢â¬âa scenario in which theyÃ¢â¬â¢re savvy and productive, or one in which theyÃ¢â¬â¢re hampered by impatience and shallowness. HR professionals might, as a result, have to change the ways in which they manage these younger workers. Some 55 percent of survey participants agreed that the brains of multitasking young people will be wired differently from the brains of those older than 35, mostly for the better. They said young people wonÃ¢â¬â¢t suffer notable cognitive shortcomings, and that Ã¢â¬Å"they are learning more and they are more adept at finding answers to deep questions,Ã¢â¬ in part because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re good at going online and finding collective intelligence. Some 42 percent of survey participants expected brain-wiring changes with negative results, including a thirst for instant gratification. They expect young people will Ã¢â¬Å"not retain information; they spend most of their energy sharing short social messages, being entertained, and being distracted away from deep engagement with people and knowledge. They lack deep-thinking capabilities; they lack face-to-face social skills; [and] they depend in unhealthy ways on the Internet and mobile devices to function.Ã¢â¬ Even some who chose the positive prediction said it was more their hope than their best guess, Ã¢â¬Å"and a number of people said the true outcome will be a combination of both scenarios,Ã¢â¬ according to the Pew-Elon survey report, published Feb. 29, 2012. While they were not offered a third option, some participants disagreed with the notion that the wiring of young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s brains will be different from previous generationsÃ¢â¬â¢ wiring but thought MillennialsÃ¢â¬â¢ thinking patterns probably will be. Game Change Teens and adults who grew up playing video games Ã¢â¬Å"will have lasting problems with focus and attention,Ã¢â¬ futurist author Marcel Bullinga commented in the survey. Ã¢â¬Å"They find distraction while working, distraction while driving [and] distraction while talking to the neighbors. Parents and teachers will have to invest major time and efforts into solving this issue,Ã¢â¬ he said, by helping young people learn to appreciate quiet contemplation without their mobile devices. Ã¢â¬Å"All in all, I think the negative side effects can be healed,Ã¢â¬ Bullinga added. Some of those surveyed noted that they themselves, as older adults, have become highly connected to technology, with positive and negative results. Respondents included educators who noted a diminishment of critical thinking skills and attention spans among students. David Ellis, communications studies director at TorontoÃ¢â¬â¢s York University, contends that multitasking hinders productivity, even for the very bright. Contrary to popular opinion, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t see Millennials as effective users of digital tools. Ã¢â¬Å"The idea that Millennials have a cognitive advantage over their elders is based on myths about multitasking, the skill sets of digital natives and 24/7 connectedness,Ã¢â¬ he commented in the survey. Ã¢â¬Å"Far from having an edge in learning, I see Millennials as increasingly trapped by the imperatives of online socializing and the opportunities offered by their smart phones to communicate from any place, any time.Ã¢â¬ HR experts already see refreshing and exasperating differences in Millennials in the workplace. Ã¢â¬Å"Millennials are an interesting group of employeesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"very differentÃ¢â¬ from other generations, said Susan Heathfield, a Michigan-based management consultant and business owner who writes the human resources section for About.com. Attachment to technology Ã¢â¬Å"causes them to be on 24/7,Ã¢â¬ she told SHRM Online, adding that young workers wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine going on vacation without a phone and e-mail access. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re likely to conduct most business on smart phones, she said. Ã¢â¬Å"It creates this mentality where work and what is not work is flowing together.Ã¢â¬ For example, she said, an employee might watch the NCAA basketball tournament on a computer at 11 a.m. and answer a colleagueÃ¢â¬â¢s e-mail at 11 p.m. Ã¢â¬Å"Millennial employees are looking for change and challenge. Boring is bad. They want their tasks changing all the time,Ã¢â¬ Heathfield said. They want autonomy and reassurance. Ã¢â¬Å"It just blows my mind watching how this batch of employees was raised,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"They want lots of praise, lots of feedbackÃ¢â¬âevery day. Ã¢â¬ ¦ If you ignore their ideas, Ã¢â¬ËWhatÃ¢â¬â¢s your problem? My ideas are great.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ Their connectedness can lead to behavior that older colleagues consider rude, like texting during meetings. While Heathfield didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to generalize, she noted that Millennials grew up working in teams and Ã¢â¬Å"they donÃ¢â¬â¢t think twice about whether the opinion they express hurts someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings. Ã¢â¬ ¦ A Millennial is more likely to say, Ã¢â¬ËWhat a sucky idea,Ã¢â¬â¢ and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t mean it in an insulting way.Ã¢â¬ Everyone must adjust in order to become comfortable with generational differences, she said. Ã¢â¬Å"You appreciate these kids with their fresh ideas, their youthful thinking, their sort of Ã¢â¬ËI can do anythingÃ¢â¬â¢ approach to the workplace,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re like a breath of fresh air in many ways.Ã¢â¬
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Skin Deep - Essay Example A recent newspaper article in the New York Times by Natasha Singer, dated October 4, 2007, titled "SKIN DEEP; Is the 'Mom Job' Really Necessary" reveals an interesting trend in this regard. This essay shall analyze the mentioned article and study its relevance, and the way in which the article corresponds to the ideas and issues discussed by Emma Goldman in "Love and Marriage" and "Woman Suffrage." The essay shall argue that, while the article is well presented in terms of the main argument, the limitation of the article is that the empirical evidences cited by Singer do not present the dangers of the surgical treatment adequately. The article is indeed very relevant to the thoughts expressed by Goldman. Natasha Singer reports about the cosmetic changes that are brought about in a women's body by means of plastic surgery. She discusses the work of Dr. Stoker in California, who promises a "surgical cure for the ravages of motherhood" called "Mommy makeover." Singer sets the reader thinking with her title "Skin Deep; Is the Mom Job Really Necessary" Providing adequate information about what the surgery actually does on the women who go in for the treatment, and why women agree to take the treatment in the words of Dr. Stoker, Singer then begins her attack on such extreme steps taken by women, despite the involved risks of high cost and danger to life. The main argument of Singer as can be understood in two parts: a) women who had altered bodies after childbirth, lost their self-esteem regarding their attractiveness and femininity because of the changed definition of beauty in modern times, with media pressure exacerbating the problem. b) They resorted to the readily available technology to modify their bodies in order to fulfill their cosmetic aspirations even at the risk of hefty expenditure, and danger to life. Singer supports first part of her argument well, and the cost factor in the second part. She states that "narrowing beauty norms are recasting the transformations of motherhood as stigma" and examines the role of the media in accentuating the situation: "...unforgiving standards are the offspring of pop culture and technologyGossip magazines excoriate celebrity moms who don't immediately lose their ''baby weight'' a luxury parenting magazinedescribed post-pregnancy breasts as ''the ultimate indignity'' and promoted implant surgery;" (Singer 1) Citing Diana Zuckerman, the president of the National Research Center for Women and Families, Singer further supports her argument of pressurized mothers, stating that the "the post-pregnancy body" was transformed ''into a socially unacceptable thing," (Singer 1) to suit the marketing goals of plastic surgeons, who could profit from the operations. She provides statistics from the Society of Plastic Surgeons, to point to the increasing numbers - "325,000 ''mommy makeover procedures'' on women ages 20 to 39, up 11 percent from 2005" (Singer 2). Singer cites Dr. Stoker and Dr. Huffaker to give the reader of the cost -ranging from $10,000-30,000. However, the empirical evidences of the women operated, like "Katie Helein" and "Ms. Sharlotte Birkland" (Singer 3) presents only the positive side of the
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
How Feminist Scholar Looks the Women of Color - Essay Example How Feminist Scholar Looks the Women of Color The feminist theory relies heavily on principles and understanding of feminism. These principles are based on the following beliefs that; Women should be handled in the same way as men in the society, that they are not inferior to men and that the main goal of feminism is bring out the issue of gender inequality being practiced on daily bases in the society. Discrimination based on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s race had existed in the US for a long time. Therefore, women were and are still viewed as facing discrimination from two angles; race and gender. Due to the many challenges that the women of color continue to face, Women of Color in US Society has been established to among other things try to come up with a alternative understanding of the social world (Zinn and Dill, 3). According to Combahee River Collective, Black feminism is founded on the fact of African American women continuous powered effort for survival and liberation. The strongly negative relationship between the African American women and the American political system as they put it, has been effected by their membership in two exploited and oppressed racial and sexual castes. This essay is going to look at how different feminist scholars look at the women of color from their own different approaches.Kimberle in her article, Ã¢â¬Å"Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of ColorÃ¢â¬ looks mostly in the violence against the women and especially the minority.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Hurricanes - Essay Example Hurricanes derive their energy from water vapor. The high temperatures make the area more prone to hurricanes because the heat evaporates the sea water and the water vapor gives the hurricane energy and increases its power. Low leveled land also contributes to the devastating effects of hurricanes by making the area prone to floods, Kerry (43). A rise in sea level, accompanied by storm surge will push sea water inland and this will lead to flooding. High torrential rainfall is also a problem because it increases the water levels and this will further make the area vulnerable to hurricanes.Various measures can be taken against hurricanes to ensure the safety of people as well as their properties. Since a hurricane can be a course of nature or a natural disaster, little can be done to prevent it. This calls for assembling of skilled and highly dedicated professionals who can be able to use modern technology to accurately forecast the event that a hurricane can occur. If this can be don e with precision then the devastation that we usually realize from hurricanes can be minimized.According to Kerry, most hurricanes have caught people unaware and they were not able to salvage their properties and some ended up losing much more than just their valuable properties but their precious lives as well. Therefore there is need to strategize on evacuation plans. This entails identification of a safe shelter and the safest route of getting there. This is in the case that a warning is issued therefore peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives can be saved.
Monday, August 26, 2019
CRITICALLY REVIEWING A JOURNAL ARTICLE - Assignment Example Researchers have outlined several practises of strategic human resources management and HR management policies and impacts of such policies on performance of various firms of China. Ngo, Lau, and Foley, has contrasted SHRM and HR policies in terms of ownership structure (Ngo et al., 2008). Integration of SHRM and HR practices in the ownership or management structure will increase operational efficiency, financial performance, and employee management. Researchers have outlined feasible strategies for organisational performance. In addition, researchers have developed investigation on various SHRM practises on the expansion, acquisition, and employee motivation strategies. In the page 74 of research paper, strategic HRM is recognised as the key HR strategy in terms of increasing organisational efficiency (Armstrong and Armstrong, 2000). Activities of HR managers are modified to increase competence of employees. HR managers must adapt performance appraisal policies to motivate efficient and performing employees. However, compensation of employees and improvement programs are essential to maintain employee relationship and motivation. Managing employee behaviours is one of the major strategies that will be followed by the HR managers. Globalised firms are increasing use of long-term strategies so that they are able to achieve objectives, growth and sustainability in the competitive firms. Ngo, Lau, and Foley, reported that strategic human resource will align different functions of the employees in order to competitiveness of the firms. However, growth and sustainability strategies of the firms are depending on employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance as per predetermined goals (Armstrong and Armstrong, 2011). Researchers have investigated on the HR practices adopted in the developing countries. Effective HR policies will increase the competitive advantage of the firms in global and
Sunday, August 25, 2019
The Contract between Darcy and Wickers - Essay Example Darcy has a cause of action against Wickers in this case. As borne out by the facts, the two entered into a contract by which Wickers are to withhold any information he may have known about the life of Kitty while under his custody in consideration of the 50,000 pounds which Darcy will give to him. The object of the contract therefore is for the peace of mind of Darcy not to be molested by the adverse public image on him, Kitty may bring in the event the life of the latter is exposed to the public. This contract does not in any way violate the law, public policy or public moral. Rather, the contract forged by Darcy and Wickers is the law between them. When Wickers reneged in his obligation not to do a certain act, i.e., to withhold from the public his knowledge of the life of Kitty, he has already incurred liability therefore. Coming now to the possibility of DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s claim relating to damages for mental distress, it is unequivocal that Darcy suffered mental distress by reason of the act of Wicker in disclosing to the media his knowledge of the life of Kitty under his custody. In the ordinary course of things, a politician with a fiancÃ ©e whose family affair is better off insulated from the public would be greatly affected, with respect to his political career, in the event such family issue is exposed to the public. This is especially true when such disclosure is malicious and unwarranted, coupled with the fact that there is an agreement to the contrary. Although the above cited case does not fall squarely on the present case, the principle enunciated is equally applicable. Wickers, in disclosing to the media an otherwise private information has committed what was termed in Campbell as misuse of private information. The cause of action of Darcy is bolstered by the contract Wickers have entered with him. True, one may argue that the person who should have suffered damages is Kitty and that the damage supposedly suffered by Darcy is remote. But that prop osition is only relevant when there is no pre-existing contract on the non-disclosure of such information. At the risk of being repetitious, the cause of action of Darcy is anchored on breach of contract by Wickers and as a result, the former incurred damages although, no pecuniary damages are involved.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Law and management - Essay Example IMO purpose is established in the ISM Code to reduce damages and accidents during shipping and voyage. Especially in operations of the ship. This code promotes cleaner and safer ships (Anderson, 2003, pg 23). The MV Ã¢â¬ËShields HappinessÃ¢â¬â¢ ship requires proper safety management to ensure competence by the crew in the ship. In this scenario between the Hall and South Shields, pollution was caused during voyage because the drip trays had not been cleared of oil and the oil later overflowed in the main deck. If the crewmembers had applied the safety management culture, they would constantly think about improvement and safety of the ship. They would have improved the deep trays by clearing the oil voyage. In addition, the Third Mate would constantly be thinking of safety and would have rechecked whether his instructions were followed. With this safety culture it places a duty on everyone on board to be constantly thinking about the safety of the ship, therefore another crewmember would have noted the discrepancy and cleared the oil on the drip trays, and this would have avoided overflow into the main deck that polluted the sea. Application of the safer culture management method would support and encourage safety in shipping. This method of management is successful if certain factors like commitment, belief and values are instilled to the shipping crewmembers. Such values of safety, if instilled in the maritime personnel, would create a positive impact (Anderson, 2003, pg 44). The second scenario shows that the tanks were not correctly inserted, and the required oxygen was not at the required level that caused a 12-hour delay and this increased costs. To improve the efficiency and performances of the ship by the ship-owner, the method to incorporate would be the organizational culture. This type of culture applies where there is a group of people from and can form their culture. There are two perspectives on it that
Applying BEQUEST for Sustainable Urban Development - Essay Example Applying BEQUEST for Sustainable Urban Development This review includes an examination and review of the relationship between BEQUEST framework and protocol; the protocol of sustainable urban property development; assessment methods available to evaluate what the protocol contributes towards the sustainability of urban development; and where the protocol has been applied and the SUD gains this has generated. Environmental problems ranging from excessive consumption of natural resources and pollution of the environment have been attributed to construction and building activities. Research is underway for green building design, and use of materials for minimising the environmental impact. Sustainability assessments have gained importance, and environmentally friendly design at project appraisal stage has been considered the ideal stage for the incorporation of environmental matters (Ding, 2008). Sustainable urban development (SUD) initiatives include Smart Growth and Building Environmental Quality Evaluation for Sustainability through Time (BEQUEST). BEQUEST bridges all scales of action including planning to component manufacture allowing all actors view the scope of urban development problem. BEQUEST is a Pan-European research initiative funded by the European Commission. The Extranet is an advisory body with over 100 European professionals and researchers. According to Kohler (2002), results of BEQUEST project on sustainable urban development have been viewed as conceptual contributions, and as a dynamic network. The usual scope of sustainable urban development has been expanded to include time and space continuity, which is significant.
Friday, August 23, 2019
How have African-Americans worked to end segregation, discrimination, and isolation to attain equality and civil rights - Research Paper Example lace for ever since the spirited struggle against such a corrupt social regime would come to an end and several decades later today, one of the African American descendants is president. How this became a successful story is through a tough battle which could only be won with special dedication and commitment. Strategies to end segregation in America began specific with steps such as on transport system, job opportunities, protestations and violent reiteration, repatriation and lobbying for legislation to allow equality. One of the most potent channels where segregation became rooted in the USA was through the use of public amenities, particularly the transport system. Segregation was manifested in several forms where initially, African Americans would not share a bus with the White. Train transport could not allow mixing of these two races and separate cars were provided, with the conditions of transport exposing the African American community to suffering and humiliation beyond explanation. Several other public amenities systems had similar discrimination policy which deliberately isolated and banished the African American people from a pleasant public life. For instance, hotels, schools and theatres would not permit free mixing of these races. Later on, where the two mixed, the African Americans were reserved for the back sits to make them feel inferior to the White people. This backdrop implies that the African American had no human and civil rights when compared to other Americans. This had to be stopped by the African American community assisted by humane Whites who sympathized with their plight during the regime. A spirited fight was launched beginning with the sensitization and mobilization of the African American community to rally their support for the plight of their civil and human rights. Angry scenes of resistance from the regimeÃ¢â¬â¢s mechanisms such as judiciary are on record, with courts giving ridiculous rulings and retrogressive laws being passed
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Core Competencies Essay A business or product which generates a sturdy, dependable flow of cash. Dog- a product with low market share in a slow growing market and thus neither generates more consumes large amounts of cash. Star- products that are in high growth markets with a relatively high share of that market. They tend to generate high amounts of income. Question Mark- growing rapidly and thus consumes large amounts of cash but because they have low markets shares they do not generate much cash 2. What are core competences? Core competences are critical capabilities to a business achieving competitive advantage. The starting point for analysing core competences is recognising that competition between businesses is as much a race for competence mastery as it is for market position and market power. Senior management cannot focus on all activities of a business and the competencies required to undertake them. So the goal is for management to focus attention on competencies that really affect competitive advantage. 4 Potential sources of core competences * Distribution * Marketing * Management * Manufacturing 4 criteria used to evaluate core competences * Valuable * Rare * Costly to imitate * Non substitutable 3. What should an audit of resources include? The resources available to a business whether it be owned or obtained through partnerships, joint ventures or simply suppliers arrangement with other businesses. The assessment of the strength and weakness of an organisation in conjunction with an assessment of opportunities and threats. It should have the key success factors for the markets and industries in question and the comparable strengths and weaknesses of competitors for the same customers. 4. What are the strategic options for competing in a Mature Industry? Prune marginal products and models * Emphasize innovation in the value chain Strong focus on cost reduction * Increase sales to present customers * Purchase rivals at bargain prices * Expand internationally * Build new, more flexible competitive capabilities 5. Define the Value System The Value System is the set of interdependent situations within a business which both directly or indirectly adds value to the customer and ultimately generates a net cash inflow. This also provides a key link between competitive strategy and shareholder value. Even though the value system bears some resemblance to PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s value chain, the latter is perhaps less flexible and less easily tailored to the variety of the modern business.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Sir Gawain and the Loathly Lady, Selina Hastings Analysis Humans are very complex beings. From sentience arrives emotions, both negative and positive, which create the beings we know as our friends, our enemies, and the rest of the world. In this rendition of the classic work Sir Gawain and the Loathly Lady, Selina Hastings reinvents two characters from the medieval tale of King Arthur, including the King and Sir Gawain. In this legend, King Arthur meets a mysterious rogue knight when separated from his men on a hunt during the Christmas season. The knight hands him a riddle, What women desire most, in which he must solve in three days time, or else the rogue knight will slay him and take possession of his kingdom. Eventually, King Arthur encounters a woman who can accurately answer the riddle, although she herself is a disgusting old hag. What is even more horrendous is that she offers a high price for her services: The hand of a knight in marriage. Arthur reluctantly accepts, and defeats the rogue knights riddle. As Arthur arrives safely back to the castle, Sir Gawain agrees to become the ugly womans husband, for the honour of his king. Although initially unhappy, Gawains mood is altered for the better when his bride turns out to have been under a curse, and is actually a beautiful lady. In order to permanently rid her of the curse, Gawain gives his wife what all women desire, to have her own way. Throughout this tale, Sir Gawain is depicted to be a courageous, arrogant, immature, and loyal knight, effectively making him a multifaceted character. Sir Gawain is obviously a very courageous man. As stated, he is usually the first to come forward to the king when the king requires an undertaker for a quest. King Arthur had not even ventured into the details of the endeavour, when Sir Gawain burst out, Sire, I beg you, let me defend you! Grant me the quest' (Hastings 179). This proves his courage, since he seems to be willing to tackle any problem, even if the details are unclear. Sir Gawain only further proves his mettle when he proposes to the Loathly Lady, who is able to make the other knights sit as Stills as statues, [and] hardly able to believe their eyes (Hastings 179). Madam, [Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦] will you honour me with your hand in marriage' (Hastings 179) was the line possibly well-rehearsed by Gawain, but however, to be able to speak it so fluently and so convincingly under the hideous gaze of the Loathly Lady is certainly a feat not to take lightly. Based on the above examples, Sir Gawains courage is a force to be reckone d with, as it seems to be able to overrule his common sense. Being at foundation a man, it seems he has a less knightly characteristic: an overwhelming sense of arrogance, displaying his multifaceted personality. When King Arthur finally explains the quest, Gawain looked stunned, but his spirit never faltered (Hastings 179). Upon hearing the fact that he must propose, he faltered, as he and his pride were prepared for battle, not for something as unexpected as a marriage to an abhorrent bride . As a result of being the only volunteer and as a victim of knightly chivalry, he was forced to marry the Loathly Lady, and as a consequence of the self-embarrassment, his pride suffered. In shock of his actions, he moved through his wedding in a trance. After the wedding, he thought to himself, Was he to spend the rest of his life shackled to a creature more hideous than the demon of a nightmare (Hasting 180). Upon his courage intercepting his mind and causing him to propose to the Loathly Lady, his inner sense of pride was disintegrating. In order for him to be so dismayed, he must have had inner thoughts that he would court a beautiful young lady, instead of an ugly old hag. Upon realizing the reality of his situation, he must have noticed the cons of having such an unappealing bride, in which every solution resulted in having to hide the Loathly Lady, therefore deducting an aspect of adulthood, demoralizing him and stripping him of what little may have been left with his arrogance. Due to this episode, Gawains pride as a member of the round table was temporarily diminished. His courage and arrogance may be explained by another trait he houses: his immaturity as the youngest Knight of the Round Table in the castle of Carlisle. When the king explains he does not know how he may save his honour, Sir Gawain leapt up, scattering the ivory chessmen at his feet (Hastings 179). As he was the only knight the rush to the kings aid, it is clear he lacks experience, since no other knight had done the same. Another contributing factor is the fact that he is very superficial, only studying appearances instead of personalities. When The pair [Gawain and the transformed Loathly Lady] were so happy and so much in love (Hastings 181), it is obvious that their love cannot be anything deep, since they only met the day before the quote, so their love is a shallow, sexual love, rather than a deep romantic love. Being young, immaturity is unavoidable. His final trait, which is the most obvious of all characteristics among a group of knights, is their loyalty, more specifically to their king. As previously stated, he is always the first to come forward (Hastings 179). Along with being courageous, this statement may also represent loyalty, as he takes it upon himself to help the King in whatever way he can. After hearing the quest Gawain had replied Take me to her, Sire, [Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦] I will marry her tomorrow.' (Hastings 179), which continues to prove his strong sense of loyalty, which prevents his arrogance from allowing him to refuse, and keeps his courage at a constantly effective level. Sir Gawains loyalty keeps a constant hold upon him. The knight, Sir Gawain is a multifaceted character, since he is loyal as he is arrogant and courageous as he is immature. He obeys all orders given to him by the king, but his sense of pride is at the same time corrupted by the arrival of his loathly wife. His courage is tested to the limit when he marries the Loathly Lady, but when the Loathly Ladys curse was broken, it shows how shallow Gawain really is, displaying immaturity. By incorporating a mix of positive and negative traits into the composition of Sir Gawains personality, Selina Hastings has effectively recreated the complex character of a human being. It illustrates the nature of human life, as nobody is perfect.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The United Arab Emirates Contents Introduction Brief history Rank on human development index Type of government and economic system Economy Health care Statistics Education Family life Social issues Equality Conclusion Works Cited UNITED ARAB EMARITES Introduction This paper deals with the overview of economic, social, governmental and political arrangements in United Arab Emirates. UAE is a steady, exceedingly developed authoritarian system by means of a contemporary financial system. Tourist facilities are extensively on hand. UAE a country that shows us even all the way through hard times, even a great combat, could stand up from the ashes and be one of supreme countries in the human race. (Walsh, 2008) Brief history The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of total of seven emirates came into being on 2 December 1971, in the company of the seventh member, Ras al-Khaimah, coming in early 1972. Ever since that time, on the other hand, the UAE has developed as a federal unit, by means of the result that the so-called try out of unification in the present day symbolizes the lone flourishing effort at federation inside the Arab world. (Romano, 2004) Rank on human development index Backed by the progressive financial program built around monetary liberalization, diversification and development in the position of the private division, the UAE has moved up 23 positions in the United Nation Human Development Index ever since 1980, at present standing in 32nd position in the class of extremely high human development Type of government and economic system The UAEÃ¢â¬â¢s governmental system persists to be defined by the conventional patriarchal method of leadership shared with political devotions prearranged around the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s a variety of ethnic elements. Authoritarian type of government is present here. On the national level, the Supreme Council, counts in the monarchs of each of the seven emirates, is the top executive and governmental authority, Ã¢â¬Å"exercising supreme control upon the affairs of the Union in generalÃ¢â¬ Economy The most recent value for GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) in UAE was 40,760 as of 2012. Since 10 years, the rate for this indicator has varied between 45,630 in 2008 and 33,070 in 2002. The per capita GNP for the UAE is recorded as 112 billion dollars. (Zaman, 2011) Health care Health is a significant subdivision of any country and it is the responsibility of the government to make available the superlative health care facilities to the populace of the state. It is the accountability of the government to present the population by means of the best possible health check facilities. The major aim of any administration is to make sure the interests and well being of the natives. It is one of the most important rights of any human being that he is supposed to encompass the entrance to the fundamental medicinal facilities. When citizens talk on the subject matter of healthiness, they do not converse about a healthy body on the other hand health means robustness of brains which can never be accomplished if the body is not healthy enough in order to perform the responsibilities and the additional everyday tasks. Health is not a personal matter, but instead healthy human being means a healthy measurement of any population. No state can continue to exist devoid of i ts people fit in every sense that counts in the physical and mental well being of nation. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the citizens who construct or damage the states. For a fit and progressive country, a strong and fit nation is as obligatory similar to that of the oxygen is for the existence. Following stats show the health care system and expenditures in UA E Statistics Education The UAE offers wide-ranging education to each and every one (male and female students), from play school to university, with schooling for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens given that at no cost at all classes. The UAE steadily enlarged its budgetary allotment for both basic and higher teaching levels. AED 9.7 billion or 23% of the entire federal funds was given to the Ministry of Education in 2012 Family life If inhabitants of UAE are to choose between family or work they probably chose family. This shows the clear inclination of the Emiratis people towards family. For them spending quality time with the family is more of a blessing and it is the basic priority in their way of living. Studies show that flexible connection between the family and the work cam lead one to the path of prosperity and success. Those who do not care about the responsibilities of their family unit they suffer ion their private lives and personal relations. A strong family bonding is seen in their families. Number of children may vary from 4 10 6 and concept of re marrying is common in them. Social issues Some of the social issues may count in corruption, adoption of westernization, unequal rights of female, bonded labor and obsession of teen towards modern technology with the passage of time. However well built policies and laws are formulated and implemented to avoid the further consequences of these issues. (Hurreiz, 2002) Equality As per the Article 14 of the constitution specially assures Ã¢â¬Å"equality for all before the law, without distinction between citizens on the basis of race, nationality, religion or social status,Ã¢â¬ still there do exist an unsaid and undefined criterion by which national or spiritual minorities are deprived of aspects of their civil rights as populace of the country. As UAE is a diverse place for a lot of indigenous people, government is trying to preserve the rights of incoming people by providing equal opportunities on all level. (Ibrahim Abed, 2001) Conclusion I would like to sum up my report with the learning that UAE being the federation of all seven emirates, is flourishing well in terms of economy, education and trade while the country requires to work on human rights and eradication of social problems. Works Cited Hurreiz, S. H. (2002). Folklore and Folklife in the United Arab Emirates. Psychology Press. Ibrahim Abed, P. H. (2001). United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective. Trident Press Ltd,. Romano, A. (2004). A Historical Atlas of the United Arab Emirates. The Rosen Publishing Group. Walsh, J. (2008). UAE. Kuperard. Zaman, N. U. (2011). Uae and Globalization Attracting Foreign Investments. GRIN Verlag.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Light and Darkness in Macbeth William Shakespeare's "Macbeth" is an ominous tale that illustrates the danger in violating the Great Chain of Being, the hierarchy of things in God's ordered universe. The Chain ranked all of creation and human society as well. It ranked kings above nobles and nobles above the poor. When Macbeth murdered King Duncan and assumed the throne, the Chain was violated... chaos resulted. The atmosphere of the play symbolized this resulting turmoil. Specifically, light and shadow were used to exemplify the unnatural chaos and ominous tone of the work. This essay will explore the role of light and the role of darkness as it relates to the chaos resulting from the violation of the Great Chain of Being. Light is a common symbol for good tidings and order, so it is with Shakespeare's "Macbeth". At the announcement of his successor, his son, King Duncan said, "Which honor must not unaccompanied invest him [The Prince of Cumberland, King Duncan's son and successor to the throne] only, but signs of nobleness, like stars, shall shine / on all deservers" (Shakespeare 189). King Duncan pledged his throne to his son as would be compatible with the Great Chain of Being. The light that was mentioned suggests that all was right with the world; the Great Chain of Being was in proper order. The idea that light signifies the natural order of things is enforced when the nobleman Ross says, "And yet dark night strangles the traveling lamp [the sun]" (Shakespeare 206). The sun is the symbol of the Great Chain of Being and God's order in harmony because it is the source of all natural light. Macbeth's act of regicide disturbed the natural order of things and so subdued the sun. In "Macbeth", light is a symbol of harmony and order, but darkness is just the opposite. Darkness is the chaos and evil that results from a broken Great Chain of Being. Macbeth sent Scotland into turmoil and dark night when he murdered King Duncan. In response to the announcement of the Prince of Cumberland as the successor to the throne of Scotland, Macbeth said, "... Stars, hide your fires, let not light see my black and deep desires [to murder both King Duncan and the Prince of Cumberland]" (Shakespeare 189).
Sunday, August 18, 2019
May 31 - June 12, 1864 In the overland campaign of 1864, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant with the Army of the Potomac battled General Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia for six weeks across central Virginia. At the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, North Anna and Totopotomoy Creek, Lee repeatedly stalled, but failed to stop, Grant's southward progress toward Richmond. The next logical military objective for Grant was the crossroads styled by locals Old Cold Harbor. May 31, 1864 After sparring along the Totopotomoy northeast of Richmond, Grant ordered Major General Philip Sheridan's cavalry to move south and capture the crossroads at Old Cold Harbor. Arriving near the intersection, the Union force ran into Major General Fitzhugh Lee's Confederate horsemen. A sharp contest ensued, soon joined by Confederate infantry under Brigadier General Thomas Clingman of Major General Robert Hoke's division. After a short battle, Union cavalry drove the Confederates beyond the crossroads. The Rebels then started digging new positions a half-mile to the southwest. June 1, 1864 Lee wished to retake Old Cold Harbor and sent Major General Joseph Kershaw's division to join Hoke in a morning assault. The effort was short and uncoordinated. Hoke failed to press the attack and Sheridan's troopers, armed with Spencer repeating carbines, easily repulsed the assault. Grant, encouraged by this success, ordered up reinforcements and planned his own attack for later the same day. If the Union frontal assault broke through the Confederate defenses, it would place the Union army between Lee and Richmond. After a hot and dusty night march, Major General Horatio Wright's VI Corps arrived and relieved Sheridan's cavalry, but Grant had to delay the attack Major General William Smith's XVIII Corps, Army of the James, marching in the wrong direction under out-of-date orders, had to retrace its route and arrived late in the afternoon. The Union attack finally began at 5 p.m. Finding a fifty yard gap between Hoke's and Kershaw's divisions, Wright's veterans poured through, capturing part of the Confederate lines. A southern counterattack however, sealed off the break and ended the day's fighting. Confederate infantry strengthened their lines that night and waited for the battle to begin next morning. June 2, 1864 Disappointed by the failed attack Grant planned another advance for 5 a.m. on June 2. He ordered Major General Winfield Hancock's II Corps to march to the left of the VI Corps. Exhausted by a brutal night march over narrow, dusty roads, the II Corps did not arrive until 6:30 a. Outline from may 31- june 12, 1864 :: essays research papers fc May 31 - June 12, 1864 In the overland campaign of 1864, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant with the Army of the Potomac battled General Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia for six weeks across central Virginia. At the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, North Anna and Totopotomoy Creek, Lee repeatedly stalled, but failed to stop, Grant's southward progress toward Richmond. The next logical military objective for Grant was the crossroads styled by locals Old Cold Harbor. May 31, 1864 After sparring along the Totopotomoy northeast of Richmond, Grant ordered Major General Philip Sheridan's cavalry to move south and capture the crossroads at Old Cold Harbor. Arriving near the intersection, the Union force ran into Major General Fitzhugh Lee's Confederate horsemen. A sharp contest ensued, soon joined by Confederate infantry under Brigadier General Thomas Clingman of Major General Robert Hoke's division. After a short battle, Union cavalry drove the Confederates beyond the crossroads. The Rebels then started digging new positions a half-mile to the southwest. June 1, 1864 Lee wished to retake Old Cold Harbor and sent Major General Joseph Kershaw's division to join Hoke in a morning assault. The effort was short and uncoordinated. Hoke failed to press the attack and Sheridan's troopers, armed with Spencer repeating carbines, easily repulsed the assault. Grant, encouraged by this success, ordered up reinforcements and planned his own attack for later the same day. If the Union frontal assault broke through the Confederate defenses, it would place the Union army between Lee and Richmond. After a hot and dusty night march, Major General Horatio Wright's VI Corps arrived and relieved Sheridan's cavalry, but Grant had to delay the attack Major General William Smith's XVIII Corps, Army of the James, marching in the wrong direction under out-of-date orders, had to retrace its route and arrived late in the afternoon. The Union attack finally began at 5 p.m. Finding a fifty yard gap between Hoke's and Kershaw's divisions, Wright's veterans poured through, capturing part of the Confederate lines. A southern counterattack however, sealed off the break and ended the day's fighting. Confederate infantry strengthened their lines that night and waited for the battle to begin next morning. June 2, 1864 Disappointed by the failed attack Grant planned another advance for 5 a.m. on June 2. He ordered Major General Winfield Hancock's II Corps to march to the left of the VI Corps. Exhausted by a brutal night march over narrow, dusty roads, the II Corps did not arrive until 6:30 a.
Libya is an Arab country in northern Africa. It lies on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The country is bordered by Egypt and Sudan on the east, Chad and Niger on the south, and Algeria and Tunisia on the west. Tripoli is Libya's capital and largest city. The vast, dry Sahara covers most of Libya, and the country has few natural resources. But the discovery of petroleum in 1959 injected huge sums of money into Libya's economy. The government of Libya used some of this wealth to improve farmland and provide services for the people. Almost all of Libya's people are of mixed Arab and Berber ancestry and are Muslims. Until the early 1900's, Libya consisted of three separate geographical and historical regions. It became a united, independent country in 1951. Libya's official name is the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Government Muammar Muhammad al-Qadhafi is Libya's head of state, but he holds no official title. In 1969, Qadhafi led a military revolt that overthrew the ruling monarchy. Libya's government is based on popular assemblies. All Libyan citizens age 18 or older may vote and hold public office. About 1,000 local groups elect a representative to the General People's Congress (GPC), which officially runs the national government. The General People's Congress meets every year to consider legislation and to select the members of the General People's Committee, which develops national policy. Libya is divided into 24 political units called bal...
Saturday, August 17, 2019
In 1974 the Ministry of Education developed nonformal vocational programs to serve out-of-school youths and adults. In respect of policy measures and institutional reforms, the purpose of adult/youth and nonformal education is to provide an opportunity to those who were unable to avail themselves of formal educational opportunities. The objective is to provide vocational training, along with basic literacy and numeracy skills, so that each individual can participate and contribute more effectively to his/her well-being, and to society. Such adult/youth and nonformal vocational technical education is conducted on a nonformal basis through programs offered by Rural Education Centers, School of Appropriate Farm Technology, Manzini Industrial Training Center, to name a few. The following comprise some of the major adult/youth nonformal vocational and technical education training centers. Manzini Industrial Training Center-Emakhonweni As a result of the pressing need for vocational and technical skills training as an alternative form of education, Manzini Industrial Training Center (MITC) was established with the aim of giving its trainees useful and practical skills in a trade or craft which may help them find a job upon completion. The MITC provides skills training for unemployed youth between the ages of 18 and 25 years. These are out-of-school youth who are at risk. Fundamental to the program is the acquisition of basic vocational skills which will enable a young person to earn his/her own living whether by self- or waged employment. In most of the courses offered at the Center, upon completion of the two year course in basic skills, the trainees take the relevant Swaziland Government Trade Test-Grade III with the intention of going on to Government Trade Test level-Grade II. This enables those who have not had the opportunity to complete high school (grade 12) to obtain a qualification which is recognized for pay purposes, in the wage employment sector. However, for those trainees whose desire is to become self-employed, they can apply for placement in the Business Management Extension Program (BMEP), a one year course which offers facilities and training, under the Ã¢â¬Å"sheltered workshop concept,Ã¢â¬ to prospective entrepreneurs. The MITC has an enrollment of over 200 trainees receiving skills training in 13 areas. Agriculture, Sewing, and Upholstery are one year courses in duration whereas Building, Carpentry, Electrical, Metal Work, Motor Mechanics, Plumbing, Printing, Panel Beating, Small Engine Repair, and Spray Painting are two years in duration. The approach employed in the training utilizes a combination of on the job training and theory lectures. Remaining as the principal training approach is Ã¢â¬Å"Training through productionÃ¢â¬ (Manzini Industrial Training Center, Annual Report 1990/91). Business Management Extension Program In 1986 the management of Manzini Industrial Training Center (MITC) established the Business Management Extension Program (BMEP). BMEP is an indigenous small enterprise development project set up to combat the problem of unemployed youth who have already acquired vocational technical skills. With a grant from United States Agency for International Development (USAID), an administration building, warehouse, and eight workshops were built. BMEP is a unique institution in Swaziland that fills a specific niche: training and technical assistance for small and microbusinesses and the development of new enterprises (Gamedze, 1993, Personal interview). BMEPÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to promote small enterprise development by providing trade and business skills training, individual business consultancy, and financial assistance to persons who are matured, have job experience and vocational skills, work for themselves full-time, and exhibit entrepreneurial traits. The mission statement contributes to the goal of increasing employment generated by Swazi-owned and/or managed section of the economy and expand the Swazi-owned or managed small business sector. (Gamedze, 1993, Personal interview). The primary goal of BMEP is to assist its clients in transforming income generating activities into small business enterprises which are operated as viable economic entities. In doing so, BMEP seeks to improve its clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to produce quality products/services and to effectively manage their business activities. BMEP is governed by a Board of Directors; however the day to day operations are the responsibility of the Director assisted by a program manager responsible for training and extension, and a finance manager who oversees the functions of the organization and administration of the loan scheme. BMEP extension officers are serving a total of 94 clients. They provide business assistance to 47 clients who also have received loans, 16 clients who are receiving business assistance only, and 31 clients who are in the assessment phase. BMEP is providing business assistance to 7 tenants in the BMEP Ã¢â¬Å"shelteredÃ¢â¬ workshops (Gamedze, 1993). BMEP has established relationships and linkages with other organizations that are involved in some kind of economic/business activities, and therefore identified areas of specific need for BMEPÃ¢â¬â¢s assistance. BMEP has formed strong linkages with other organizations involved in both urban and rural economic/business activities. These include among others: Women in Development (WID), Rural Education Centers (REC), Swaziland FarmersÃ¢â¬â¢ Development Foundation (SFDF). BMEP has established good relationships with financial institutions (e. g. , commercial banks) in which their representatives participate in BMEP training sessions and workshops as resource persons (Gamedze, 1993). Nhlangano Agricultural Skills Training Center The Nhlangano Agricultural Skills Training Center is an institution with an agricultural focus but supported by four other technical training programs, namely, Carpentry, Building and Construction, Motor Mechanics, and Metal Work. The Center had its first intake in 1992/93. When the Center is in full swing, a business management program to develop entrepreneurial skill will be put in place. Aimed at the youth usually referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"street kidsÃ¢â¬ who are at risk, which includes the underprivileged, the unemployed, the educationally and socially disadvantaged, and school dropouts; the Nhlangano Agricultural Skills Training Center (NASTC) has given the youth of Swaziland another lease on life (Malan, 1992). This recently constructed skills training center offers training over a duration of two years. Modeled after the Manzini Industrial Training Center (MITC), the Nhlangano Agricultural Skills Training Center (NASTC) has the objective of training people toward self-employment or earning a wage in the agricultural sector of the economy. The establishment of such a center that provides Ã¢â¬Å"on-the-job trainingÃ¢â¬ in Swaziland is of significance in that it plays a major role in promoting self-sufficiency among young people. On the other hand, the underprivileged young persons, those with limited formal education, are catered for in so far as skill acquisition is concerned (The Swazi Observer, 1992). Table 7. Manazini Industrial Training Center Enrollment, 1990/91 | Trainee | Course | Male | Female | Agriculture | 9 | 7 | Building | 28 | 0 | Carpentry | 21 | 0 | Electrical Repairs | 10 | 0 | Metal Work | 20 | 0 | Motor Mechanics | 21 | 1 | Panel Beating/Spray Painting | 9 | 0 | Plumbing | 6 | 0 | Printing | 4 | 5 | Sewing | 0 | 28 | Upholstery | 5 | 3 | | 133 | 44 | Upgrading trainees to Trade Test | | | Grade II level | 14 | 0 | Total | 147 | 44 | School of Appropriate Farm Technology. The School of Appropriate Farm Technology (SAFT) is a nonformal and vocational agriculture school that targets secondary/high school leavers and drop-outs who cannot proceed to formal postsecondary education for one reason or another. The aim of SAFT is to provide high school leavers with relevant vocational agricultural skills and experiences to enable them to increase agricultural production at home in their local communities, and also earn an income from sales of produce (Sibisi, 1981). The school leavers catered to by this School are those with little or no prospect of getting a job in the formal labor sector. This is a rapidly growing segment of the population of unemployed youth who may soon dominate the total population in numerical terms (Cousins, 1983). Entrants to the School need a minimum of education in the sense that they are expected to have completed primary school (Grade VII), at least. However, those responsible for admissions have stressed motivation toward farming as one major requirement. The enrollment of the School averages 20-25 students, the majority of whom are boys. The age range of students is 18-25 years. The School has a capacity to enroll 40 students. Although the applications may range from 100 to 200 and admission may approximate the full capacity of 40 students, after the Preentry course of two weeks duration, students dropout as they experience difficulty coping with the practical demands of the course. Rural Education Centers. In pursuance of the policy on the improvement of the quality of life and the general standard of living of the rural people, the Government of Swaziland established eight Rural Education Centers in 1978. Aiming at improving the socio-economic status of the rural people in Swaziland, the Rural Education Centers were established with the following specific objectives in mind (Ministry of Education, n. d. ): Ã · To provide formal schooling to rural youth, and non-formal instruction to adults and unemployed school leavers. Ã · To instruct in vocational education through training in appropriate skills which may lead to self-employment and self-reliance. Ã · To assess needs and initiate projects; to coordinate services, resources, and activities of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations involved in rural development. Ã · To serve as a community resource center where educational, economic and social activities may be developed and focused providing facilities that may be used for non-formal education purposes. Seven of the Rural Education Centers (RECs) were built at secondary schools whereas the 81 was built at a primary (elementary) school. In practice, REC programs have primarily served rural women, especially in training of skills for income generation. The direct beneficiaries, in the main, have been rural women, and also some men, and school leavers, who enter vocational training courses and participate in community projects (Ministry of Education, 1988). Bosco Skils Center Bosco Skills Center is a Youth Enterprise Scheme for Self-Employment with the goal of (a) providing suitable workshop space for the development of small businesses, and (b) offering suitable training in trades and business skills primarily for those neglected and forgotten and at-risk young people who wish to be self-employed. The small business person (the experienced entrepreneur) joins the Skills Center to operate and improve his/her business, and for the use of the Skills CenterÃ¢â¬â¢s facilities, he/she makes a contribution by training a maximum of three young persons (trainees) for self-employment over a two year period. In addition to the training provided by the experienced entrepreneur, the trainee business person attends afternoon classes in basic Mathematics, English and Business Management Skills. Mathematics and English are each taught two hours a week whereas, Business Management Skills is taught one hour a week by the Business Management Extension Program (BMEP) (McDonnell, Personal Interview). The Skills Center has 60 small business trainees for its first group of intake who undergo vocational skills training under 21 experienced entrepreneurs. The trainees, who must be 18 years upon admission, are given three months to decide whether this kind of vocational training is suitable for them, and during this period they also work in close cooperation with the CenterÃ¢â¬â¢s Training Coordinator. The admission process entails interviews conducted by the experienced entrepreneurs who, select three young trainee businesspersons to train. Once admitted, the trainee receives E10. 00 (about US $3.30) a week to cover off-pocket expenses drawn from the trainees Fund to which the experienced entrepreneur, for operating his/her own business at the Center, has made a contribution as part of the agreement to use the Skills Center workshop and facilities. The fee for one year is E150. 00 (about US $50. 00) payable in three installments of E50. 00 ($16. 66) by the trainee business person (McDonnell, 1993). The Skills Center has eight workshops, and offers vocational skills training for self-employment in the following areas: Ã · Motor mechanics Ã · Auto electrical Ã · Panel beating and spray paintingÃ Ã · Upholstery Ã · Carpentry Ã · Welding/metal work Ã · Plumbing Ã · Dressmaking and tailoring Ã · Sewing Ã · Pottery Ã · Refrigeration repair Ã · Radio and T. V. repair Ã · Printing Ã · Hairdressing. Upon joining the Skills Center the experienced entrepreneur takes on the following financial commitments: Ã · Contribution to the cost of electricity Ã · Contribution to the cost of water Ã · Contribution to the salary of the show/display room manager Ã · Contribution to a trainee fund Ã · Payment for telephone use Ã · Payment for transport use Currently each experienced entrepreneur makes an agreed contribution of E165. 00 (about US $55. 00) a month to cover the above costs. The amount to be paid for the above costs is established by the Executive of the Skills Center Management Committee which reports to the Bosco Center Board, the top policy making body. Unlike the Manzini Training Center or the Nhlangano Agricultural Skills Training Center (NASTC) whose target population group are school leavers with a Junior Certificate (grade 10) or there about, Bosco Skills Center reaches out for the young people with much less formal education who have no hope of anything else. They constitute the very bottom population group of young people with very little schooling. They are educationally deprived, socioeconomically disadvantaged and Ã¢â¬Å"are at-risk of not achieving the goals of education, acquiring the knowledge, skills and dispositions to become productive members of societyÃ¢â¬ (Natriello, McDill, & Pallas, 1990, p. 8). They comprise the majority of the young and unemployed whose hope for making living lies in self-employment since their formal schooling leaves them with little or no prospect of getting a job in the formal labor sector of the economy. Powered by greenstone3 Background Mercy Corps in Somaliland is implementing the Somali Youth Leaders Initiative (SYLI). Component Two of the SYLI focuses on workforce development and building the technical and managerial capabilities of Somaliland youth to engage technical and vocational training and related livelihood business. These activities complement SYLIÃ¢â¬â¢s other components by increasing the number of Somali youth with the right skills and training. Generally, the main challenge with Vocational Educational schools/centers in Somaliland is to make their teaching relevant to the current needs of the local job market. There are a lot of things that constrain their ability to do this Ã¢â¬â including poor education levels of Vocational Education students; outdated and overly theoretical curricula, lack of incentives to connect students to the job market; and lack of connections between the Vocational Educational staff and current industry needs. The Vocational Training and Non-Formal Education Specialist should assist in making curricula dynamic and practical to the current needs of the job market and design programs and incentives to link students and their teachers to growth areas of the Somaliland work force and the economy. Component Summary The Vocational Training and Non-Formal Education Specialist will provide expertise in a number of areas, including new approaches to training, including in-service courses, internships, work-study, apprenticeships, and use of ICT etc. Development of appropriate curriculum and innovative training methods to provide the skills for new entrants into commercial business will be a key outcome. It is important that all curricula developed by the project be gender sensitive and socially inclusive to appropriately transfer relevant knowledge to a variety of audiences. Furthermore, provide technical support to stakeholders and partners in the sub sectors. Key duties and Responsibilities. The Vocational Training and Non-Formal Education Specialist will undertake a number of innovative non-traditional approaches to gender sensitive and socially inclusive knowledge transfer and workforce development. The Specialist will ensure that interventions that are implemented to improve the performance of vocational educations schools are sustainable; by continually obtaining Somali stakeholders input from the various organizations engaged in training. The Specialist will work to sustainably build Somali capacity to provide the right kind of training, in the right place and time and tailored to Somaliland. SYLIÃ¢â¬â¢s interventions will enhance the capacity of the selected vocational colleges to become Centers of Excellence [COEs] in vocational education and outreach, using the COE as a model for other schools/centers to follow. The Specialist will be responsible for devising programs to attract more ladies/women into these institutions and will work with the Ministries of Youth and Sport, Labour and Education to build upon the accomplishments of the USAIDÃ¢â¬â¢s other Education programs, EUÃ¢â¬â¢s vocational education program, etc to expand adult education opportunities particularly to women and to youth. http://reliefweb. int/node/489716.
Friday, August 16, 2019
At the age of 12 his parents divorced (DiGiuseppe 1989, Ellis 1992, , Sheehy 1997). These two life-altering events were, in part, what led him to begin focusing his mind on understanding people (DiGiuseppe 1989, Ellis 1992, , Sheehy 1997). In junior high Albert Ellis dreamed of becoming a great novelist (DiGiuseppe 1989, Ellis 1992, , Sheehy 1997) but by the time he reached college age, he decided it might be more practical to become an accountant instead. However, he planned to retire by the age of 30 so that he could then take up writing at his own leisure (DiGiuseppe 1989, Ellis 1992, , Sheehy 1997). Due in part to the Great Depression, his goals changed but he did go on to graduate college in 1934 with a degree in business (DiGiuseppe 1989, Ellis 1992, , Sheehy 1997). After graduation he and his brother became entrepreneurs and started their own business. They sold pants purchased from the garment district (DiGiuseppe 1989, Ellis 1992, , Sheehy 1997). In 1938 a gift and novelty firm employed him as their personal manager. Some of his controversial articles included The Influence of Heterosexual Cultures on the Attitudes of Homosexuals (1951) and Prostitution Re-assessed (1951) both of these articles were written for the International Journal of Sexology (DiGiuseppe 1989, Ellis 1992, , Ellis 2004). Albert EllisÃ¢â¬â¢ writings were groundbreaking material that opened the door to the sexual revolution of the 1960s and the gay and lesbian rights movement in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s (Ellis 1992). These writings were controversial at that time and may have stigmatized or put a negative label on Albert Ellis. However, these writings as well as references from his friends was how he formed his client base (DiGiuseppe 1989, Ellis 1992, , Ellis 2004). Most of Albert EllisÃ¢â¬â¢ early clients were individuals and couples suffering from sex, love and marital problems (DiGiuseppe 1989, Ellis 1992, , Ellis 2004). Albert Ellis also grew his private practice through publicity from his talks, workshops, radio, and television presentations which led to referrals from a number of psychologists with whom he had no personal relationship with (Ellis 1997). Besides maintaining a full-time private practice, Albert Ellis also found the time to become the first Chairman of the first Committee on Private Practice of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Ellis 1997). During that time he conducted a study of the members of the American Psychological Association (Ellis 1997). This study showed that only 56% of the American Psychological Association members were engaged in some kind of paid private practice, and only 30% devoted 20 or more hours a week (Ellis 1997). Only a few individuals including Albert Ellis were in full-time private practices (Ellis 1997). Albert Ellis also worked with Reverend Ilsley Boone on a New York District Federal Court to legally sell nudist magazines (Ellis 1997)_. _ They lost the New York District Federal court case and immediately start working on a brief for the United States Supreme Court and alternately reversed and New York district Federal Court decision (Ellis 1997). This was a major victory for nudists across the country (Ellis 1997). Albert Ellis quickly became an Ã¢â¬Å"IdolÃ¢â¬ for many American nudists (Ellis 1997). Philosophical and Psychological Beliefs Albert Ellis experimented with various forms of psychotherapy keeping therapies that he believed work better than others and disregarded everything else. Albert Ellis began building his own therapeutic process and started questioning traditional Freudian psychoanalysis. In 1953 Albert Ellis started calling himself a Ã¢â¬Å"psychotherapistÃ¢â¬ instead of the traditional Ã¢â¬Å"psychoanalystÃ¢â¬ label (DiGiuseppe 1989 , Ellis 1997, 2004). Albert Ellis thought that this change of title would separate him from the classical psychoanalytic practices (DiGiuseppe 1989 , Ellis 1997, 2004). Albert Ellis had a passion for reading early philosophy e. g. Epictetus and Spinoza (DiGiuseppe 1989 , Ellis 1992). Albert Ellis also read famous works from the leading psychologist of his time e. g. Alfred Adler and Karen Horney (DiGiuseppe 1989 , Ellis 1997, 2004). His study of philosophy and psychology also led him to become interested in understanding the philosophy of happiness. Albert Ellis came to the conclusion that if an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s basic needs were met, the individual would be happy. He found that basic needs were only part of the equation for personal happiness. Albert Ellis then focused on negative thoughts. Albert Ellis thought that if people had a rational philosophy of life they would rarely be emotionally disturbed (DiGiuseppe 1989 , Ellis 1997, 2004). Albert Ellis formulated a theory that psychological issues and emotional issues of the individual were causing the negative thoughts or what Albert Ellis called irrational beliefs (Ellis 1997, 2004). Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy Basics Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) is a therapy in which individuals change their perceived believes about perceived negative events. Albert Ellis acquired several disabilities such as diabetes, tired eyes, deficient hearing, as well as other physical handicaps (Ellis 1997). Albert Ellis used Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) to overcome his negative perceptions of his disabilities. Ã¢â¬ If you really accept it, and stop whining about it, you can turn some of its lemons into quite tasty lemonadeÃ¢â¬ (Ellis 1997). Albert Ellis used rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT), on himself, in 1943 soon after he became a practicing psychologist (Ellis 1997, 2004). Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) is an important and useful therapy still used today. First, an individual must be aware of their irrational thoughts or explain to the individual that the way they perceive an event is irrational. Then, the individual must replace the irrational thought with rational thought. Finally the individual believes in Ã¢â¬Å"unconditional self acceptance (USA)Ã¢â¬ (Ellis 1997, 2004). Unconditional self acceptance (USA) is when an individual learns to accept and love their self for who they are rather than what they do. The unconditional self acceptance (USA) is reached when the low frustration tolerance (LFT) is raised and ultimately achieves high frustration tolerance (HFT) (Ellis 1997, 2004). The ABCÃ¢â¬â¢s of REBT Albert Ellis believed emotional problems that an individual suffers from are the link to a set of irrational beliefs held about themselves, others, and the world they live in. These rational beliefs perpetuate negative self talk in the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s consciousness. The negative self talk puts emphasis on Ã¢â¬Å"shouldsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"oughtsÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"mustsÃ¢â¬ of irrational thinking. Rational emotive behavioral therapy attempts to replace these irrational beliefs with new rational thoughts. The process of helping the client change their irrational believes is a two step process. The first step is setting up or choosing for themselves certain happiness producing values, purposes, goals, or ideals; and effective, flexible, scientific, logico-empirical [sic] ways to achieve these values and goals and upload boarding contradictory or self defeating result (Ellis 1997, 2004). Rational beliefs or irrational beliefs shape who we are how we act. Albert Ellis created an ABC model to help both the client and the therapist engage and treat unrealistic, immature, and absolutist modes of thinking into realistic, mature, logical, and a realistic approach to thinking (DiGiuseppe 1989 , Ellis 2004). The Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ in the ABC model refers to the Ã¢â¬Å"activating an eventÃ¢â¬ . Activating events are events that trigger or cause our beliefs and perception. The Activating event could be a real situation that the individual had experience are could be inferred event were individual their own meeting contrary to what the situation was (DiGiuseppe 1989, Ellis 2004). In Either case the activating event is negative stimuli cause by an event or situation triggers any irrational belief (Ellis 2004). The Ã¢â¬Å"BÃ¢â¬ in the ABC model is beliefs that shape an individual emotions and behaviors (DiGiuseppe 1989 , Ellis 2004). In other word, an individual who experiences an activating event then forms a belief based upon that activating event affecting their decision-making about their consequences and/or reaction to other stimuli (Ellis 2004). These Beliefs can either be youÃ¢â¬â¢re rational or rational (Ellis 2004). The Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ in the ABC model stands for the consequences of the irrational beliefs (DiGiuseppe 1989 , Ellis 2004). There are emotional and behavioral consequences, either positive or negative, to a set of beliefs about the activating event (DiGiuseppe 1989 , Ellis 2004). Individuals that suffer from irrational beliefs about a given situation will likely suffer from unhealthy negative emotions (DiGiuseppe 1989 , Ellis 2004). Unhealthy negative emotions are extreme emotions that can manifest themselves in a variety of forms e. g. guilt, anxiety, andor depression (Ellis 2004). The extreme negative feelings are so intense that the individual afflicted with these emotions often cannot function normally (DiGiuseppe 1989 , Ellis 2004). Albert Ellis does not believe that one should live a life free of negative emotions (Ellis 2004). Albert Ellis believed that healthy negative emotions were emotions that were relatively Ã¢â¬Å"low in intensityÃ¢â¬ (Ellis 2004). Albert Ellis believed that the healthy negative emotions experienced in a mentally healthy individual can modify behavior for the betterment of the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ life (DiGiuseppe 1989, Ellis 2004). Albert Ellis later added the (D), (E), and (F) to his ABCÃ¢â¬â¢s ofRational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (Ellis 2004). The Ã¢â¬Å"DÃ¢â¬ is disputing the irrational beliefs that the individual possesses about the activating event (Ellis 2004). The Ã¢â¬Å"EÃ¢â¬ or effect the person feels is only achieved when the individual or client successfully disputes the irrational belief and replaces the irrational belief with a rational belief (Ellis 2004). This will ultimately lead to a new effect in the persons behavior. The effect will then lead the individual to a healthier and happier way of feeling Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ (Ellis 2004). The application of the rational emotive behavioral therapyÃ¢â¬â¢s ABC model allows people to visualize how their reactions to events are formed (Ellis 2004). Once an individual visualizes how irrational beliefs are formed and changes their behavior negatively therapy will, more than likely, be successful. The 4 steps of applying the ABC model Rational emotive behavioral therapy is an approach that makes the client participates in an active role in the therapy process. There are four steps in applying the ABC model. As the client Progresses through the four steps will work through an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s irrational beliefs and use certain skills to combat any irrational beliefs that may arise after private counseling has ended (Ellis 2004). Step one is to reveal the individuals or clients irrational beliefs in their current mode of thinking (Ellis 2004). In many cases the individuals of clients have had these irrational beliefs for so long that they cannot distinguish their irrational beliefs from normal rational beliefs (Ellis 2004). Also when the individual or the client has family and friends reinforcing their irrational beliefs, even though the irrational beliefs may not fall into societal norms, only reinforces the idea that their irrational beliefs are rational or normal (Ellis 2004). The first step, basically, outlines the treatment plan and formulates a plan of action to dispute the irrational beliefs. Clients must be aware of their irrational and rational beliefs and distinguish the differences between the two different beliefs. In step two the client or individual expands their understanding of what is irrational and what is rational (Ellis 2004). This step is similar to step one, but step two the therapy is more in-depth and intense. In step two the client or individual must be made aware of their irrational beliefs and how the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ irrational beliefs are perpetuating their own turmoil (Ellis 2004). If the client or individual continues to think unreasonable or irrational, they will repeat their irrational behavior and have continued unpleasant feeling that interrupt their normal way of life (Ellis 2004). In showing the individual or client the pattern of their irrational beliefs and the consequences their irrational beliefs impose on them is detrimental to the success of their treatment (Ellis 2004). Only when the client can distinguish the difference between rational beliefs and irrational beliefs, can realize that the negative problems they are having are in direct correlation with their irrational beliefs, and can see the pattern they follow when irrational beliefs are present (Ellis 2004). Step three begins once the previous objectives have been met. In step three the individual or client will learn how to stop illogical or irrational beliefs and change the irrational and negative pattern into a new logical and rational mode of thinking and behaving (Ellis 2004). This is achieved when the individual ceases the negative self talk and stop the irrational beliefs from affecting their mode of thinking (Ellis 2004). Many individuals have their irrational beliefs so embedded in their mode of behaving and their mode thinking that the individual may not even be aware that their irrational beliefs are irrational (Ellis 2004). The client with help from their therapist will attempt to identify the irrational beliefs from the rational beliefs (Ellis 2004). In the fourth and final step the client has identified their irrational beliefs (Ellis 2004). The client along with the help of the therapist, work to modify the clients negative way of thinking and identify and change the clients irrational beliefs into rational modes of thinking (Ellis 2004). The therapist works with the client until a new set of rational beliefs are fashioned (Ellis 2004). Once the irrational belief system is replaced by a more rational and logical belief system the client will notice negative feelings and negative behaviors change into a more positive feelings and positive behaviors (Ellis 2004). The rational emotive behavioral theapry techniques used by the therapist to dispute irrational beliefs can vary from client to client depending on the type of the client and modes of irrational thinking REBT Techniques Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy is a multimodal form of therapy (Ellis 2004). Some of the different techniques used in Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy include Ã¢â¬Å"Disputing the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s irrational beliefsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"changing the language of the clientÃ¢â¬ , and emotive techniques like Ã¢â¬Å"role playingÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"rational emotive inventoryÃ¢â¬ (Ellis 2004). These different techniques can be used to modify several types or irrational behaviors caused by irrational beliefs e. g. anxiety, depression, anger, and addictions (Ellis 2004). These techniques show the client how to refute their irrational beliefs in a precise and rapid method. Disputing the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s irrational beliefs technique is a technique that makes the client challenge their beliefs and modes of thinking (Ellis 2004). In this technique the therapist presents a series of questions such as: Why do you assume this? or Why must it be this way? When the client answers these questions the client start to realize that the way they are thinking is irrational (Ellis 2004). The language of the client technique disputes Ã¢â¬Å"the shouldsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the oughtsÃ¢â¬ in the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s way of thinking (Ellis 2004). In most cases the language used by the client forms their irrational way of thinking (Ellis 2004). By changing Ã¢â¬Å"the shouldsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the oughtsÃ¢â¬ into wishes, wants, and desires may change the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s irrational beliefs (Ellis 2004). Example of Self-Application of REBT The techniques outlined by Albert Ellis shows how simplistic but meaningful Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) can be (Ellis 2004). Take for example when Albert Ellis gets impatient or angry about his various limitations (Ellis 2004). Albert Ellis says to himself: Ã¢â¬Å"Too damn bad! I really do not like taking all this time and effort to deal with my impairments and wish to hell that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to do so. But alas, I do. It is hard doing so many things to keep myself in a relatively healthy condition, but it is much harder in the long run and much more painful and deadly, if I do not keep doing this. There is no reason whatsoever why I absolutely must have it easier than I do. Yes it is unfair for me to be more afflicted than many other people are. But, damn it, I should be just as afflicted as I am! Unfairness should exist in the worldÃ¢â¬âto me, and to whomever else it does existÃ¢â¬âbecause it does exist! Too bad that it doesÃ¢â¬âbut it does! Ã¢â¬ sic Albert Ellis lived a full and rich life filled with controversy and an outspoken attitude. Albert Ellis fought for gay and lesbian rights and the right to send uncensored or Ã¢â¬Å"obsceneÃ¢â¬ mail through the Federal mail system. Albert Ellis was also one of the first individuals start their own private practice as a psychologist.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Part of being a counselor requires an understanding of dual relationships and the boundaries that are in place between a client and their counselor. Being a good counselor requires an understanding of the role that ethics plays in the professional relationship. Ethics are not simply a way of protecting the client but offer protection to the counselor as well. Counselor Decision-Making and Counseling Examples In the counseling profession dual relationships also known as multiple relationships can be defined as a situation in which multiples roles exists between the counselor and the client. Callanan et al discuss the fact that when a counselor and a client Ã¢â¬Å"blend their professional relationship with a non-professional relationship, then ethical concerns must be considered (2014).Ã¢â¬ The boundaries that are set in place between a counselor and a client are done so to protect both parties. A counselor is in a position of power in the life of their client and if the boundaries are not in place, the counselor could take advantage of their client and cause difficulties for them. To determine if a boundary crossing or a dual relationship is ethical and appropriate with a client that I am treating I would look first to the ACA code of ethics to determine what is viewed as unethical dual relationships. The ACA code of ethics goes into some detail in regards to what is considered to be a n unethical dual relationship. ACA Code A.5.a states that a Ã¢â¬Å"sexual and/or romantic counselorÃ¢â¬â client interactions or relationships with current clients, their romantic partners, or their family members are prohibited (2014).Ã¢â¬ The code of ethics also explains that counselors are prohibited from providing counseling services to someone that they have previously had a sexual/romantic relationship with. If theÃ situation that I am involved in is not covered within the ethical guidelines, then I would seek the advise of my supervisor or trusted colleague to determine what their thoughts are in regards to the situation that I have found myself in. In making my decision, I would look to determine that the decisions being made would not adversely affect my client or myself. I would also look to determine if the change in relationship would be therapeutic to my client. If I was dealing with a situation where I was sexually attracted to my client or my client was sexually attracted to me; I would look to the ACA code of ethics and determine that a sexual relationship with a client is considered unethical. Geyer believes Ã¢â¬Å"there seems to be considerable agreement within both secular and Christian circles that romantic or sexual relationships are always unethical concurrent with or during counseling and virtually always unethical afterwards (Dual Role Relationships and Christian Counseling, 1994).Ã¢â¬ If during a counseling session with a client, they felt that I was not hearing them, it might be appropriate to do some self-disclosure. This is a boundary crossing but as long as the self-disclosure does not cause the client to feel negative effects then it is acceptable as a way to make sure the client understands the counseling is listening and understands what the client is feeling. If I was working in a small town that did not have other counseling options, then I might be placed in a position to have a dual relationship with a client. A friend could come to me needing assistance in dealing with an issue and due to the area that we live in, there might not be another counselor that they could go and see. In this situation, I believe a dual relationship would be allowed as long as the boundaries between friendship and counseling are fully laid out before beginning. The friend would have to come into the sessions not as a friend but as a client, someone that I am there to assist without passing judgment. If I had been treating a client who had been involved in car crash where their actions caused the death of the passenger in the car, would it be ethical for me to cross the boundary of leaving the office and going to the site of the accident. I believe in this case that it would be acceptable for me to cross that boundary and go with my client as a support system as they are trying to come to terms with their actions that caused the death of another. By going with them to the site of the accident, they are able to have a sense of being protected as they process whatÃ transpired and led them to that point in their life. Ethical Issues and Dimensions The ACA Code of Ethics defines an appropriate amount of time of 5 years following the termination of therapy to be acceptable for a counselor to pursue a sexual/romantic relationship with a past client. I believe that in some instances 5 years would be a good amount of time to pass before looking for that type of relationship but in some cases longer might be better. I will have been in a very powerful position with my client and therefore depending on what they were receiving counseling for, it might not have been enough time for that power dynamic to have equaled out. If I were seeing a client and they invited me to their birthday party, this would be considered unethical because I would be seeing them outside of the counseling sessions. If services have been terminated and we are the five years out of the counseling relationship, I would be able to attend the party without fear of my actions being unethical. How the relationship with the client ended also plays a part in being able to interact with them after termination of therapy. Lebaw (2014) states that there are different types of termination of counseling services; the termination of services can be carefully planned or be totally unplanned and based on cases that were either successful or unsuccessful. If the termination of services was a negative experience for the client, it might be more ethical to not interact with them after the ending of the counseling sessions. Professional Collaboration Counseling It is important for counselors and other stakeholders to work together in regards to the care of a client. There are different situations in which multiple areas of help will be needed for the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ safety and well-being and it is important that each member of the team is able to communicate effectively with one another. Multidisciplinary Team It is important for a counselor in certain situations to be able to work withÃ other professionals to ensure the best care is being given to a client. If I have not been trained in handling addictions and have a client that is dealing with severe depression but is also an alcoholic then it would be beneficial for me to work in conjunction with their addiction counselor. Then as I am treating the client for their depression, the addiction counselor is working with them in regards to their alcohol addiction. In this case the addictions counselor and I would need to be able to communicate back and forth with one another to ensure that our client was receiving the best possible care for their co-occurring disorders. Also, with having another person involved in the care of the client it helps to keep the firm boundaries in place that maintains the safety of the client and myself. The addictions counselor and I would meet regularly to discuss our plans to achieve a detailed care plan tha t gives our client the best possible outcome. Staton and Gilligan (2003) define the objective of collaboration as Ã¢â¬Å"developing mutual agreement on ways to work together to provide the most effective services.Ã¢â¬ Fiddler et al (2010) said that Ã¢â¬Å"meaningful engagement and decisions should be made in collaboration with the patient about his/her treatment and future management.Ã¢â¬ The client should be a part of the process of the care plan and not just being told what is going to be taking place, it allows the client to have a voice in their treatment. If my client did not wish for me to collaborate with their addictions counselor, wanting to keep the two areas separate then I would need to treat the client solely within the scope of the depression. I would not be able to provide my client with any advice as to why they are drinking or even why they find it difficult to stop drinking. As an individual counselor working alone with the client, I need to be sure that I do nothing unethical with the client. By knowing what I have been trained in and informing my client that because I do not have the experience or training to treat them in regards to their addiction, I am not only taking car e of myself ethically but the client as well. Part of the job of a supervisor-counselor relationship is for them to not only train the student in what it is to be a counselor, but to be a support system for the student. This puts the supervisor in a position of extreme importance to the student. Not only is the supervisor putting forth a grade on the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance, but they are also being confided in by the student with theÃ struggles the student is having. The supervisor could use this position to influence the student in an unethical way if they are not careful. It would be simple for the supervisor to manipulate the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings towards them. These are very similar to the things that a counselor could do to a client if they did not monitor themselves. AS a counselor, you have the trust of your client that everything you are doing is being done to help them and not harm them. A criteria that could be used to determine if something a fellow counselor is being done is ethical or not is by knowing and being familiar with the ACA code of ethics as well as the laws of the state that I am practicing in. If I found a fellow counselor acting in an unethical way it would be my duty to report them to the licensing board. The board is the only one who has the right to pass judgment and sentence on a counselor who has behaved unethically. Development of Ethics Ponton stated Ã¢â¬Å"In whatever specialty counselors practice, they are asked to provide expertise to the problem of balancing an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, strengths, and identity with the group or society within which that individual functions (2009).Ã¢â¬ Since taking this course I have become more familiar with the roles that ethics needs to play in the relationship between not only counselor and client; but counselor and counselor, and counselor and supervisor. That each of these relationships forms a chain that needs to be strong and well defined. The role that ethics plays in the life of a counselor is something that is very important. Ethics are not just there to protect the client, they protect the counselor as well. From this course I have learned that there will be times when the lines between ethical and unethical are not going to be clearly defined; yet there is a support system available to me. I learned that there is nothing wrong with going to my community of counselors for support or direction when I am unsure of a step. This is a profession where not only do we help clients but we help each other. Conclusion Someone who is beginning in the counseling profession needs to be fully aware of the ethical guidelines set in place by not only the ACA but the state in which they are practicing. The code of ethics are not in place simply toÃ protect the client; but to also provide protection to the counselor. The role of ethics and boundaries is important and something that a counselor will need to continuously watch and learn about as the work with clients. Though boundaries can fluctuate they should never be crossed in a way that could harm a client. As a counselor, I need to know what cases that I can treat and those that I canÃ¢â¬â¢t and be willing to work with others to give my clients the best possible care. There are ethical guidelines for not only the interaction with clients but for the interactions with other counseling professionals. Without ethics to guide a counselor in their practice, they are in a position to do major harm to their clients. This course has shown me that ethics a re an integral part of the counseling profession and need to be respected. Refeences American Counseling Association (2014). 2014 ACA Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author Callanan, P., Corey, C., Corey, G., & Corey, M. (2014). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions. Stamford:CT Fiddler, M., Borglin, G., Galloway, A., Jackson, C., McGowan, L., & Lovell, K. (2010). Once-a-week psychiatric ward round or daily inpatient team meeting? A multidisciplinary mental health teamÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of new ways of working. International Journal Of Mental Health Nursing, 19(2), 119-127. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0349.2009.00652.x Geyer, M. C. (1994). Dual Role Relationships and Christian Counseling. Journal Of Psychology & Theology, 22(3), 187-195. Lebow, J. (2014). Stages of therapy: Engagement, assessment, and termination. In , Couple and family therapy: An integrative map of the territory (pp. 151-170). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/14255-007 Ponton, R. F., & Duba, J. D. (2009). The Ã¢â¬Å"ACA Code of EthicsÃ¢â¬ : Articulating Counselin gÃ¢â¬â¢s Professional Covenant. Journal Of Counseling & Development, 87(1), 117-121. Staton, A. R., & Gilligan, T. D. (2003). Teaching School Counselors and School Psychologists to Work Collaboratively. Counselor Education & Supervision, 42(3), 162.