Monday, September 30, 2019
1) Asian Americans have been stereotyped under the image of being a model minority from the mid-1960s to our present day (Macionis 2010:278). Being a model minority means Ã¢â¬Å"overcoming extreme hardships and discrimination to achieve success (Macionis 2010:278). Ã¢â¬ Success Ã¢â¬Å"economically, socially, and educationallyÃ¢â¬ ¦without resorting to confrontation with Whites (Schaefer 2009: 252). Ã¢â¬ Asian Americans have done this and the public has Ã¢â¬Å"attributed their winning wealth and respect in American society to hard work, family solidarity, discipline, delayed gratification, non-confrontation, and eschewing welfare (Macionis 2010:278). Ã¢â¬ Being labeled a model minority might appear to bring only prestige but in fact it brings consequences as well. One such consequence is that being a Ã¢â¬Å"model-minority holds Asian Americans to higher standards (Macionis 2010:279). Ã¢â¬ Situations that may be accepted for some arenÃ¢â¬â¢t accepted from them. They are Ã¢â¬Å"judged by standards different from average Americans (Macionis 2010:279). Ã¢â¬ Also because of the expectations placed upon them they are channeled to Ã¢â¬Å"specific avenues of success, such as science and engineering (Macionis 2010:279). Ã¢â¬ This leads up to another consequence of parents Ã¢â¬Å"often discouraging their children from entering fields they regard as unlikely to offer financial security, such as the arts (Schaefer 2009:252). Ã¢â¬ A child may have a gift as an astounding writer, yet the parents will still discourage it due to worries about job outlook and income in the future (Macionis 2010:279). Another consequence the label causes is that it Ã¢â¬Å"reinforces the myth that the United States is devoid of racism and accords equal opportunity to all (Macionis 2010:279). Ã¢â¬ This implies that Ã¢â¬Å"those minorities that do not succeed are somehow responsible for their failureÃ¢â¬ ¦this attitude is yet another instance of blaming the victims (Schaefer 2009:252). Ã¢â¬ Although, not all bad, an advantage of the stereotype is that Asian Americans are more likely to attain a high-paying job. It is common to see Ã¢â¬Å"Asian Americans are concentrated near the top in professional and managerial positionsÃ¢â¬ ¦(Schaefer 2009:251). Ã¢â¬ Simply due to what they are known for Asian Americans are allowed more opportunity and they prove themselves over and over again; with the highest median household income of all racial groups, and the lowest poverty rate of all racial groups (Macionis 2010:278). 2) Min Zhou asks the question, Ã¢â¬Å"Are Asian Americans becoming white? Ã¢â¬ First off, what does it mean to be White? Ã¢â¬Å"White is an arbitrary label having more to do with privilege than biology (Macionis 2010:276). Ã¢â¬ Being white means different things to different people. To some becoming white Ã¢â¬Å"can mean distancing oneself from Ã¢â¬Å"people of colorÃ¢â¬ or disowning oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnicity (Macionis 2010:276). Ã¢â¬ To others becoming white is something to strive for because it means attaining a privileged status (Macionis 2010:280). The most common view accepted by Asian Americans is Ã¢â¬Å"that Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ is mainstream, average, and normal, and they look to whites as a frame of reference for attaining higher social positions (Macionis 2010:279). Ã¢â¬ Asian Americans are becoming white as I see it. They are gaining prestige, they working hard and they strive for something greater. Especially since being white is commonly associated with being an American (Macionis 2010:280). Ã¢â¬Å"Asian immigrants tend to believe in the American Dream and measure their achievements materially (Macionis 2010:279). Ã¢â¬ They share common interests with most Americans such as, Ã¢â¬Å"to own a home, to be my own boss, and to send my children to the Ivy League (Macionis 2010:279)Ã¢â¬ , as one Chinese immigrant stated. Of course, being an American is more than just these items, but it is a generalized American mentality that shows common ground. If Asian Americans choose to marry a partner of a different racial background, 87 percent of those marry whites (Macionis 2010:280). There are thoughts that some Asian Americans hold, such as, Ã¢â¬Å"You can certainly be as good as or even better than whites, but you will never become accepted as white (Macionis 2010:280). Ã¢â¬ I believe this to be incorrect. Ã¢â¬Å"According to a new Purdue University study, more than 94 percent would say that having United States citizenship makes someone Ã¢â¬Å"truly American. Ã¢â¬ http://phys. org/news64938913. html: 3)Ã¢â¬ If we were to relate being white to being American, most Asian Americans are already there. With the mentality, dedication and perseverance that Asian Americans display, I would say, Yes, Asian Americans are becoming white. 3) The Jews and Asian Americans had two different experiences that could be seen to relate in certain aspects despite the large difference in events. The Jews were intelligent and successful though looked down upon in the United States and they were seen as Ã¢â¬Å"members of an inferior race (Macionis 2010: 266). Ã¢â¬ It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until after World War II those things drastically changed. Ã¢â¬Å"Before the war, most Jews, like most other Americans, were working class. Already upwardly mobile before the war relative to other immigrants, Jews floated high on this rising economic tide, and most of them entered the middle class (Macionis 2010:272). Ã¢â¬ Like Asian Americans, Jews were always ahead of the other races. They were given difficult roads to face and large obstacles to climb, yet they achieved success, following the definition of the model minority. Similarly they struggled with the dilemma of being considered white. Before the war, Ã¢â¬Å"Columbia University took steps to decrease the number of entering Jews by a set of practicesÃ¢â¬ ¦(Macionis 2010:269). Ã¢â¬ It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the war that there were Ã¢â¬Å"changes set in motion during the war against fascism that led to a more inclusive version of whiteness (Macionis 2010:270). Ã¢â¬ Though the struggle was different, it was still there for both groups. The Jews compared to Asian Americans benefited most from government programs that spurred upward mobility because after the war the government was in need of a rise in the economy and they created great programs to assist in that matter (Macionis 2010:270). The Ã¢â¬Å"JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ and other white ethnicsÃ¢â¬â¢ upward mobility was the result of programs that allowed us to float on a rising economic tide (Macionis 2010:273). Ã¢â¬ Asian Americans on the other hand, upward mobility wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t based off of programs as much, as their heritage and culture. Instead, Ã¢â¬Å"In spite of these obstacles, Asian Americans students soldier on with strong support from their parents (Schaefer 2009:252). Ã¢â¬ As for comparison with African Americans and Asian Americans they are in two completely different categories. Both are minority groups, though they are on opposite sides of the court. Asian Americans have higher income rates than Whites, African Americans on the other hand, have their Ã¢â¬Å"household income of Blacks is still 60 percent that of Whites, and the unemployment rate among Blacks is more than twice that of Whites (Schaefer 2009:250). Ã¢â¬ Still to this day Blacks Ã¢â¬Å"remain significantly underrepresented, despite Senator Barack ObamaÃ¢â¬ ¦(Schaefer 2009:520). Ã¢â¬ Asian Americans are well represented due to being the model minority. Asian Americans are a very diverse group of people. Ã¢â¬Å"Their diverse origins include drastic differences in languages and dialects, religions, cuisines, and customs (Macionis 2010:278). Ã¢â¬ Because of this Ã¢â¬Å"all of these differences create obstacles to fostering a cohesive pan-Asian solidarity (Macionis 2010:278). Ã¢â¬
Sunday, September 29, 2019
SRS FORMAT Index & Tables 1. Introduction Purpose of the Project: Online Blood Bank is aims serving for human welfare. We have all the information, you will ever need. Many people are here for you, to help you, willing to donate blood for you anytime. We have done all the job, rest is yours. search the blood group you need. You can help us by registering on Online Blood Bank if you are willing to donate your blood when needed. As a proud member of OnlineBloodBank and a responsible human being, you can help someone in need. So donate blood in online. Scope of the project: Online Blood Bank is aims serving for human welfare.We have all the information, you will ever need. Many people are here for you, to help you, willing to donate blood for you anytime. We have done all the job, rest is yours. search the blood group you need. You can help us by registering on Online Blood Bank if you are willing to donate your blood when needed. As a proud member of OnlineBloodBank and a responsible h uman being, you can help someone in need. So donate blood in online. Modules: 1. Admin 2. Donar 1. Admin: This module focuses on the both donars & acceptors. Each member in a donar & acceptor is given a user id and password, which identifies him uniquely.The member is given a login form. he enters the login details user id and password. .. The options given to Ã¢â¬ ¢ Change Password Ã¢â¬ ¢ Maintain donar details Ã¢â¬ ¢ Maintain referral once Ã¢â¬ ¢ Update donar details Ã¢â¬ ¢ View Experiances Ã¢â¬ ¢ Logout Whenever a user wants to change his / her password he can select the change password option. The system displays the form, which asks him for his old password and new password. The system then compares the old password with the existing password in the database and if they match then the password is set to the new password in the database.The id for retrieving the details from the database is brought through the session, which is maintained using cookies in the form. This re moves the burden on user in typing user id again and also maintains security by not allowing one user to change password of other accidentally. 2. Donar: Each member in a Donar is given a user id and password, which identifies him uniquely. The member is given a login form. he enters the login details user id and password. .. The options given to a each member in a staff are Ã¢â¬ ¢ Change password Ã¢â¬ ¢ Find a Blood group. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Why donate blood Ã¢â¬ ¢ Who needs blood Ã¢â¬ ¢ Find A Donar. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Refer A Friend. Ã¢â¬ ¢ LogoutWhenever a user wants to change his / her password he can select the change password option. The system displays the form, which asks him for his old password and new password. The system then compares the old password with the existing password in the database and if they match then the password is set to the new password in the database. The employee id for retrieving the details from the database is brought through the session, which is maintained usi ng cookies in the form. This removes the burden on user in typing user id again and also maintains security by not allowing one user to change password of other accidentally.At the end the user is able to log out from the system using the logout option. References: 1. Ã¢â¬Å"Windows Programming Using MFCÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Jeff Prosice 2. Ã¢â¬Å"MFC InternalsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Geroge Shepherd 3. Ã¢â¬Å"Programming in Microsoft VC++Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Kruglinnki. 4. Ã¢â¬Å"Software Engineering ConceptsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Pressman 5. Ã¢â¬Å"Object Oriented Analysis and DesignÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Rambaugh Technologies: you can use the . NET Framework to develop the following types of applications and services: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Console applications. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Scripted or hosted applications. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Windows GUI applications (Windows Forms). Ã¢â¬ ¢ ASP. NET applications. Ã¢â¬ ¢ XML Web services. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Windows services. 2. Overall Description: Sotware Interface:OPERATING PLATFORM : WINDOWS 2000/NT/XP RDBMS: SQ LSERVER 2000 SOFTWARE : VS. NET 2008 FRONT END TOOL : ASP. NET Hardware Interface: RAM :128MB HARD DISK :MINIMUM 20 GB 1. Data Flow Diagrams: Data flows are data structures in motion, while data stores are data structures. Data flows are paths or Ã¢â¬Ëpipe linesÃ¢â¬â¢, along which data structures travel, where as the data stores are place where data structures are kept until needed. Data flows are data structures in motion, while data stores are data structures at rest. Hence it is possible that the data flow and the data store would be made up of the same data structure.The following are some DFD symbols used in the project External entities DATAFLOWS FIRST LEVEL DTAFLOW DIAGRAM donar Information Employee Status DFD For Admin DFD For User Account 2. Unified Modeling Language Diagrams (UML): Ã¢â¬ ¢ The unified modeling language allows the software engineer to express an analysis model using the modeling notation that is governed by a set of syntactic semantic and pragmatic rule s. Ã¢â¬ ¢ A UML system is represented using five different views that describe the system from distinctly different perspective. Each view is defined by a set of diagram, which is as follows. User Model View i.This view represents the system from the users perspective. ii. The analysis representation describes a usage scenario from the end-users perspective. Structural model view (In this model the data and functionality are arrived from inside the system. (This model view models the static structures. Behavioral Model View (It represents the dynamic of behavioral as parts of the system, depicting the interactions of collection between various structural elements described in the user model and structural model view. Implementation Model View ? In this the structural and behavioral as parts of the system are represented as they are to be built.Environmental Model View In this the structural and behavioral aspects of the environment in which the system is to be implemented are repre sented. UML is specifically constructed through two different domains they are ? UML Analysis modeling, which focuses on the user model and structural model views of the system? ? UML design modeling, which focuses on the behavioral modeling, implementation modeling and environmental model vie Use-Case Model Survey: 1) Use Case Diagrams Admin: The Administrator is the user of the system. He is the responsible person to require the new Donars and status, Matins the Add new Tasks Details.Donar: This module focuses on the basic Donar. Each Donar is given a user id and password, which identifies him uniquely. The Donar is given a login form where in he enters the login details user id and password. As he is a registered into the system shows his form with his/her select options 1) Sequence Diagrams Administrator Login Sequence 2) Sequence Diagrams Employee Login Sequence . ELABORATION PHASE [pic] Flow chart: 3. ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP Diagrams E-R (Entity-Relationship) Diagram is used to re presents the relationship between entities in the table. The symbols used in E-R diagrams are: SYMBOL PURPOSERepresents Entity sets. Represent attributes. Represent Relationship Sets. Line represents flow Structured analysis is a set of tools and techniques that the analyst. To develop a new kind of a system: The traditional approach focuses on the cost benefit and feasibility analysis, Project management, and hardware and software selection an personal considerations. Admin Donar: 11. CONCLUSION This project has helped us in implementing the Visual C++ using AppWizard and MFC. We automated the work of allocating shifts to the Employee according to their Designation and Gender . All Tasks are done by different Groups.Each group formed as same department Employees or different department Employees. Generation of shifts allocation for Employee helped us in learning Object oriented features and implementing them in MFC. We came to know about the scheduling the tasks updating by time an d have a plan of completing task with in time proper designing of Rotating the schedules. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Process: A transaction of information that resides within the bounds of the system to be module. DATASTORE:A repository of data that is to be stored for use by one or more processes, may be as simple as buffer of queue or as a relational database.Donar Module Admin information Module Donar Donar New Registrations [pic] Matian Client Details donars Details Donar blood information Login Admin New Donar Registrations Donar Information Referral once Details Experiances Logout Validate Log name () Validate Password () Check for required privileges () Authenticate The id Admin Master Donar Registrations and Add New Task Details . Enter log name Login Get the Information about why donate blood Find a donar Change Password Refer a friend ( Donar Administrator login master Administrator login master Login screen Admin Master Authenticate T he id Check for required privileges ()Validate Password () Validate Log name () Enter log name Administrator login master Administrator login master Login screen Leave Applications and Information of Task and Shifts ( Admin Store re login Query Analyzer Authenticate the given parameter ( Check for any specific schedules allocated upon him Donate blood Store ery Analyzer Donar Supply the customer ID Experiances Authenticate the customer ID Store Sto Store re Query Analyzer Enter the required policy parameters Change Password Insert Admin Verify Data 3. 1 Verify Data 3. 1 Check for Donar Admin Master Admin Master Verify Data 3. 1 Admin Master Check for Schemes InsertAdmin Master Check for User Account User Master Insert Donar Verify Data 2. 1 Verify Data 2. 2 Verify Data 2. 3 Donar Master Page Check for the Donar Profile Insert Donar Master Check for the Donar Account Details Donar Registrations Who needs blood Donar information Phno Location yob BloodType Username Gender Password Ful l Name Admin Name Donar Details Donar blood details How to donate bloods Experiances details Comments donar Details Who needs blood Blood details Donate blood Phno Location yob BloodType Username Gender password Full Name Donar profile Donar Name Donar Details Experience details comments Refer a friends
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Homelessness can occur even in the most stable income families. Families that have a one income household can find themselves without employment suddenly from companies that are experiencing economic difficulties which lead to reduction in forces. The United States homeless populations decreased by one percent in 2011. The nation went from 643,067 homeless people to 636,017. The largest decrease was among homeless veterans. The number of homeless veterans declined from 75,609 in 2009 to 67,495 in 2011 (US Bureau of Statistics, 2012). Homeless families have many medical needs that need to be addressed by a health care provider. Nursing plans are based on the assessment of family needed and interventions should be individualized. In the following paper, the writer will provide an assessment of how homelessness affects family processes. Healthy People 2020 objectives related to homelessness are identified and, a list of nursing interventions was developed. Homeless families are mostly s ingle parent families with women as head of household. The age range is 20-35 years old. Members of the family are often from minority groups. The primary causes of homelessness are the inability to pay rent, overcrowding and family conflict. Homeless families experience extreme poverty which put the family at risk for numerous health conditions (US Bureau of Statistics, 2012). The more serious acute and chronic illnesses as well as mental illness and children are vulnerable for a wide range of disease processes. It is estimated that 90 percent of homeless mothers has a mental illness with substance abuse and children have a high rate of development impairment (Wagner & Menke, 2002). Mothers demonstrate a high level of intense stress along with inability to cope. Children react to their homeless condition through hyperactive and aggressive behavior; their behavior can range from being withdrawn to becoming emotionally clinging (Wagner & Menke, 1992). The familyÃ¢â¬â¢s life is marked by confusion, turmoil, constant chaos and stress so that family violence is common. TheirÃ lives are also commonly marked by crime and victimization. Homeless families commonly suffer from malnutrition, infections, a wide number of diseases, and mental health problems (Cotton & Roden, 2007). The Homeless Family Assessment Assessment can be performed from several approaches. Wagner and Menke (1992) emphasize the value of case management because it is a holistic approach, uses comprehensive knowledge of health and illness, and has the capability to screen for deviations from the norm. Case management is able to take into account the fragmented nature of the homeless family and the use of many different agencies in care. Because homeless families are extremely vulnerable populations with highly complex needs, the clinical nurse specialist is the most appropriate health care provider for these families (Wagner & Menke). Healthy People 2020 Objectives Healthy People 2020 has the general goal of improving mental health and access to mental health services. Among the objectives is the improvement of people with co-occurring mental disorders and substance abuse problems. Another objective is to make assessment, diagnosis, and treatment available for these people. Nursing Interventions Nursing interventions need to focus on the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and allow her to maintain control over the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s functioning. When homeless mothers have mental health problems, the first intervention should be providing access to care. Ensure a safe place for medications and adapt medication regimen. Provide for patient education and screen the children for physical and mental problems. Most especially, the clinical nurse specialist needs to collaborate and coordinate with ancillary care as the family will have ongoing issues. Health teaching must include all the psychosocial aspects of care and certain problems experienced by the family will require advocacy. Nutrition should be the first concern after shelter and the strategies may involve coordination, referrals and advocacy as well as guidance and teaching. Lack of good nutrition and an adequate daily diet is a source of impairment in all areas. The clinical nurse specialist will also act as advocate both for individual homeless families and all families thatÃ require solutions to problems brought on by homelessness. Nurse Case Manager and the Homeless Family The homeless family would benefit from the assignment of a case-manager. The case manager may encounter the homeless mother with children on the streets in a situation of extreme instability. The case manager will follow the family and monitor any physical and mental health issues and make sure that the family is having proper care. Conclusion Although homeless families are decreasing slightly in the United States, it is still a high-risk area. A large proportion of these families are made up of single mothers with at least one child. The families are very vulnerable to acute and chronic physical and mental conditions while they have little or no access to care. Families can find themselves abruptly in the most extreme and stressful situation but they still have certain strengths as is observed in the fact that these families are intact. Single mothers of these families manage to maintain family functioning despite the odds. Stress as experienced by homeless mothers is intense and can lead to or exacerbate mental illness. Rather than focusing on mental illness, the health care provider needs to make shelter, nutrition and rest the main priorities because they contribute to mental health. Case management is the best approach to serve the needs of the homeless families. The health care providerÃ¢â¬â¢s role is teaching and counseling. One of the most valuable roles to the family is for the health care provider to be an advocate for them. References Amerson, R. (2008). Mental illness in homeless families. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 4(2), 109-114. Cotton, A. & Roden, J. (2007). Using patterns of knowing in nursing as a possible framework for nursing care of homeless families with children. Contemporary Nurse, 23(2), 331-342. Healthy people 2020: The road ahead. (2008). Journal of Environmental Health, 70(10), 82. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219721672?accountid=458 United States Bureau of Statistics, 2012 retrieved from www.usbureauofstatistics.gov Wagner, J. & Menke, E. (1992). Case management of homeless families. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 6(2), 65-71.
Friday, September 27, 2019
What does 'mixed' mean in contemporary Britain - Essay Example When individuals become mixed in their identities and lifestyles, social (national) identity too by default become mixed. The prevailing practice of multiculturalism and the corresponding intersection of identities, based on race, nationality, ethnicity and sex, have led to the mixing of identities in the present day society in the United Kingdom. Mixedness is quite often wrongly attributed to the different heritage of individuals and communities. It is only partially true as mixedness is also the product of the contemporary society which actively mixes the identities of both individuals and communities which previously existed exclusive of each other. One could easily argue that mixedness is essentially a question of the present as it is constantly (re)produced in the present society. Mixedness happens in the present and strengthens itself through the present. For instance, when people marry persons from other communities, they actually (re)create mixedness. In other words, mixednes s is always in the making. Mixedness is not simply an ascribed status of people have hereditary status of coming from what is traditionally known as interracial mixed families. Mixedness could also be derived from the present in a vibrant multicultural society. Mixedness is constantly produced in the multiple avenues opened up by the practice of multiculturalism and an existing multiracial multicultural environment. Here, the identities are not constant and permanent. It exists in constant flux and always becoming fluid. Therefore, mixedness is not a marginal phenomenon occurs with some marginal mixed group. It is the general state of affairs of the contemporary British society. Mixedness is no more simply a question of the existence of a mixed race in the United Kingdom. The mixed groups are usually defined in terms of their commonalities, which are defined by shared inheritance, culture and beliefs. But, the idea of mixedness does not stick to mixed groups alone. Mixedness is the mainstream. In other words, the mainstream has gone mixed and it is increasingly being more mixed by a variety of social, economic and political forces. It characterises the mainstream society as everyone gets mixed in a multicultural society in one way or another. Many research studies, according to Song (2010), have proved that no mixed group in the United Kingdom is coherent both as a community and in lived-in experiences. Identity, Lifestyle and Representation The passage from modernity which was characterised by colonialism to postmodernity, defined in terms of postcolonialism has changed the outlook of British society forever. At present, Ã¢â¬Å"the demise of colonialism as an explicit political formation has given rise to understandings of postcoloniality and, perhaps ironically, an increased recognition of the role of colonialism in the formation of modernityÃ¢â¬ (Bhambra , 2007, p.878). In BhambraÃ¢â¬â¢s scheme, the old British society was characterised by the Ã¢â¬ËW hite malestreamÃ¢â¬â¢ vis-a-vis the marginalised colonial subjects. The White British society existed as the product of modernity and was predominantly characterised by a homogenous White culture. But, the increased immigration from the postcolonial societies to the United Kingdom is altering the British social landscape in an unprecedented manner wherein the Whiteness did not exist as pure or as the founding culture of the British nation. The identities of British people are no more constructed against nationality, ethnicity, race or sexuality. The mixed identities of the British people are self constructed. And, it is possible to argue that the socially and culturally determined self construction of new mixed identities is induced by the
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Military Personnel and its Benefits - Essay Example Sadly, the mundane world is governed by economic and strategic constraints. Still, in a starkly pragmatic context, the reality is that in the contemporary scenario, not only the military personnel are getting less than sufficient benefits, but such curtailing and liquidation of benefits could have dire consequences for the national security and the overall morale of the military. Lately, the Congress and the Federal administration has been vociferously evincing the desire to not only downsize the military but also to cut on the benefits to military personnel and the veterans, going by the current economic meltdown and the recessionary trends (Scarborough A01). The direct conclusion that could be drawn from such intentions is that not only the nation does not have enough money to pay the salary to military personnel, but the military personnel could also expect a further cut in the benefits being extended to them. One thing that needs to be kept on the mind is that the proposed cuts are not in consonance with the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic requirements, but rather are the results of the hypothetical financial calculations being resorted to being the Congress (Bennett 1). Hence, any shrinking in the number of armed personnel or the benefits they deserve could have dire consequences for the strategic interests of the United States of America. The army serves the Congress. These curtailing of the military benefits will send a direct message to the military ranks that the Congress does no more afford to pay them. Even a cursory perusal of the fundamentals of HR will amply testify to the fact that such a message is bound to negatively impact the morale of the army (Maze 1). How would a soldier dare to sacrifice oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life in the line of duty, while his conscience is bothered by the worry as to whether he will be able to provide for his family and loved ones (Maze 1)? One other important thing is that the special perks and benefits accorded to the military personnelÃ serve a pivotal function.Ã
Racial and Ethnic Diversity - Essay Example is rise in diversity so much of a problem This is an imperative question, for by viewing growth in racial and cultural diversity as a problem, policy makers, educators, and journalists, have set the stage for how societies will respond to this change. This does not mean that a change in the ethnic and racial structure of a school or community does not throw up new challenges or necessitate a change in approach as regards the part of educators. New immigrants palpably speak languages other than English, and in several California school districts, it is not unusual for over 40 foreign languages to be there among the student population. The arrival of racial minorities time and again leads to racial clashes and the venting of several kinds of bias and intolerance. Those receiving the new arrivals feel endangered and apprehensive and counter with antagonism and resentment. Finally, and most significantly, diversity is deemed as problematic because American schools have traditionally seen cultural incorporation of immigrants and non-whites as essential to their mission. One of the biggest concerns of politicians and educators during the nineteenth century was how new immigrants would be integrated into the American mainstream. Public schools were often considered the most rational place where task of converting foreigners into Americans could be executed. Still, "Americanization" was not restricted to foreigners. In the southwest it was routine for Native American children to be separated form their families and sent to boarding schools. The point was to convert them into Christians. As far as African American and many Mexican American children were concerned, segregated schooling actually saved them from being subjected to... According to the report findings diversity is deemed as problematic because American schools have traditionally seen cultural incorporation of immigrants and non-whites as essential to their mission. One of the biggest concerns of politicians and educators during the nineteenth century was how new immigrants would be integrated into the American mainstream. Public schools were often considered the most rational place where task of converting foreigners into Americans could be executed. As the paper declares today de-segregation has changed that too. As a consequence, the spoken language of children Ã¢â¬â be it Ebonics or Spanish - has frequently been subject to eradication. In addition, the cultural variations of these children are associated with cultural inferiority far too often, and not unpredictably, children from these groups are likely to fare poorly in school, get into serious trouble, or for that matter even drop out. Given AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s history, and given the authentic challenges that escort an increase in diversity, several educators and communities would treat this as a problem. Small towns and rural areas are showing that diversity is the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s future and there is a concerted effort being shown in fostering diversity in the years to come. There is another option. Instead of reacting to rising diversity with apprehension and insecurity, it is feasible to treat diversity as an asset and work out ways of responding to it which facilitate the society to reap benefits from this pluralism.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Dimensions of Intercultural Communication in Organizations - Essay Example Japan, having a population of about 127 million people, is well-known for its business skills all around the world. Japan is the territory of peace and harmony that maintains to progress in an affirmative amalgamation of tradition and renovation. By means of its sophisticated and vibrant history and culture, Japan has shaped an individual form of hierarchy, respect and protocol that is still revealed in numerous social and business experiences at present. If some organization plans to do business with Japan, prospective victory lies under an understanding of this ethnically influenced protocol. The literacy rate in Japan is around 100 percent and 95 percent of the Japanese people have a high school learning. Japan is a dynamic, wealthy and thriving state, with the world's second largest financial system. Japanese consumers pay out hundreds of billions of dollars on foodstuff, outfits, tour, leisure and a broad range of further consumer supplies and services every year. The top Japanese companies are along with the most competent and unbeatable firms in the globe. Joblessness is down to approximately 4.1%, lesser than in most industrial nations. The standard Japanese household has above $100,000 in reserves, and disposable earnings of around $4,000 for each month. The majority of Japanese managers think that their ... Therefore, Japanese employees look for opportunities to take part in the management procedure. Resembling their workers, Japanese managers acquire a participatory approach. Participative Japanese leaders exercise a combination of both task centered and people centered perspectives to direct subordinates. Owing to this participative attitude, Japan is frequently used like an illustration of William Ouchi's Theory Z administrator Theory Z administration consists of the following Japanese management features. 1. Leaders and workers are equally motivated by a prevailing sense of commitment for their organization. 2. Workers look for responsibility and struggle for opportunities to progress in an association. 3. Groups are pleased with themselves when they contribute to managerial accomplishment by teamwork. 4. Japanese organizations offer a lifetime job security which develops strong relationships of sincerity among the workers and managers. Japanese managers distinguish with Theory X administrators like those from Middle Eastern states or Indonesia who think that their employees are naturally indolent. Theory X managers are strict, and hence exercise force and pressure of penalties to complete the task properly (Hodgetts & Luthans, 2003). Theory Z managers as of Japan are also dissimilar from leaders in China, Europe and North America who normally track the more paternalistic Theory Y perspective. In Theory Y, managers believe that employees will struggle and look for increased challenge and accountability counting on the rewards related with task attainment. Since Theory Z is participative, Japanese associations
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
News Paper Summary - Essay Example They further project the net U.S. farm income to fall by 27% to $95.8 billion. The article concentrates on investors who are selling jumble bonds resulting from fears of fresh interest rates and geopolitical turmoil. Borrowers have reacted by delaying debt sales and negating scheduled deals. Investors doubt adding to their holdings resulting from the Federal Reserve winding down the monthly stimulus. According to analysts, investors are not being compensated the risk in high-yield bonds effectively. They further state that investors sell the high-yield bonds because the look expensive and their performance have been weakening. Investors have responded by steering clear of high-yield exchange-traded funds because of rising worries about how they will fare in a slump. Financial firms are planning an exit strategy for Argentina, which is involved in a legal stalemate with some hedge-funds bondholders that intend to rug the country into default. Argentina, Wall Street best client for the past 10 years, is receiving several deals from banks, but none has won the approval of Argentine officials. Banks stand to benefit greatly at a time when revenue is under pressure from soft economic growth, stiffer rules, and regulatory review. Negotiations with banks are on a standstill following a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that the country might be on the danger of breaking a clause in its bonds that capacities equal treatment to all bondholders. The officials refused to negotiate with the holdouts claiming they refused to accept the reformations that most bondholders had agreed to. The country faces $14.5 billion claim from bondholders, but the country project to raise billions of dollars through bonds to repay the holdouts. AbbVie seeks to expand its stock in a deal worth $54 billion by acquiring Shire PLC. The firm compares it
Monday, September 23, 2019
The Artist Marcel Duchamp - Essay Example The essay "The Artist Marcel Duchamp" states the Marcel Duchamp, his art, and life. He began to learn artistic processes here, and Duchamp later remarked that his teacher believed the then contemporary impressionist style were debased and sought to instruct only traditional techniques; as a result, DuchampÃ¢â¬â¢s primary influence became his family. During this formative period Duchamp was predominantly influenced by academic style of art including the post-impressionist and symbolist schools. When Duchamp turned 17 he moved to Paris to pursue a career as an artist. He was immediately influenced by the prevailing artistic trend of cubism and much of his early work reflects these influences; DuchampÃ¢â¬â¢s work, however, reflects more eccentric personal images and psychology than most of the established cubist art. In 1912 Duchamp completed one of his most renowned works, Ã¢â¬ËNude Descending a Staircase, No. 2Ã¢â¬â¢. While the painting incorporates traditional cubist elements of shifting perspectives, its cryptic title and focus on the movement of the object have led many critics to identify it as a monumental work. Like much great art, the painting was derided upon its release. The work was originally supposed to be exhibited in Paris, but the curator asked Duchamp to change the title to which he refused. When it was finally exhibited in a 1913 New York exhibition the painting was even termed, Ã¢â¬Å"an explosion in a shingle factory. The painting is almost ironically referring to the Renaissance Ã¢â¬ËnudeÃ¢â¬â¢ in its title.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Stepmothers Sin Essay Professional experience Business manager (NOV 2009 JUL 2010) Unimark remedies ltd, Hyderabad, India * Promotion, marketing and sales of oncology drugs * Taking appointments from oncologists and visiting them in order to promote new products if any, discussions in order to increase the prescriptions for the company`s products * Visiting pharmacy retail and whole sale institutions in order to increase the availability of range of products. Visiting patient wards in various government medical institutions conducting surveys to help the company in public relation programmes * Studying the data describing new products to develop sales approach. * Compiled data on equipment and supplies preferred by customers. * Online report to the head office about the job done and about the competitor activities in the region. Medical representative (MAR 2009 Ã¢â¬â NOV 2009) Zen life sciences (oncology), Hyderabad, India. * Promotion, marketing and sales of oncology drugs Taking appointments from oncologists and visiting them in order to promote new products if any, discussions in order to increase the prescriptions for the company`s products * Visiting pharmacy retail and whole sale institutions in order to increase the availability of range of products. * Attending class room training and aptitude tests in order learn about new products to develop sales approach. * Giving samples to the customer. * Reporting to the manager about the job done. Medical representative (MAR 2008 Ã¢â¬â NOV 2008) Lupin pharmaceuticals. Bangalore, India. Promotion, marketing and sales of lupin femina drugs. * Taking appointments from gynaecologists, general physicians and visiting them in order to promote gynaecology drugs and over the counter drugs ( vitamin, calcium and other supplements ) * Visiting pharmacy retail and wholesale institutions in order to increase the ava ilability of range of products, taking orders, checking the storage conditions of the products in their premises. * Attending class room training and aptitude tests in order learn about new products to develop sales approach. Reporting to the manager about the job done. Honours * Registered pharmacist in Andhra Pradesh pharmacy council holding registration number: 060622/A1 * Awarded best trainee in 2009 by Zen life sciences (oncology) * Awarded best seminar and poster presentation on pharmaceutical marketing and administration in 2007. References * Miss Rubina khan , product manager Email: rubina. [emailprotected] com * Mr Rahul rao boinapally, regional manager, lupin pharmaceuticals. Email: [emailprotected] com * Mr Sasankha canuparthy Email :
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Face recognition Face recognition are processes involved in recognition of faces. Explanations of face recognition include feature analysis versus holistic forms. Remembering and recognising faces are an important skill one applies each day of their lives. It is important to the social interactions, to work and school activities, and in peoples personal family lives. Although most of the research in this area has been undertaken on faces it is in fact rare in real life that we need to identify someone from their face alone. Information from a persons clothes, voice, mannerisms etc, and the context in which we encounter them all help in the identification process Sometimes we fail to recognise someone because they are not wearing the clothes we normally see them in or because they are in an unexpected context. Holistic form theory is an unconventional to feature analysis approach to face recognition. Although features are important in describing faces and therefore do have some role to play in face recognition, dependence only on bottom up processing for such a complex activity is very unlikely. Bruce and Young (1986) proposed a top down approach to face recognition in which they argued that recognising a face is a highly complex process involving stored knowledge of semantic and emotional information and is therefore much more than adding together the sum total of a faces features. According to the Holistic approach a face is recognised as a whole, analysing not just the separate features but also the configuration of the face, the relationship between the individual features, feelings aroused by the face and semantic information about the face. Such an approach is sometimes referred to as a template model (Ellis 1975) whereby we have a stored template or pattern for each person as we k now and when presented with a face try to match this stimulus to our mental template. Several studies illustrate how recognition depends on the layout or configuration of the face as a whole. Young and Hay (1986) demonstrated the importance of configurable processing of faces. They cut pictures of famous faces horizontally and ensured the participants could recognise the two separate halves. Then they combined two separate halves together and measured time taken to and accuracy of, naming the top and bottom halves of the composite figures. This proved very difficult for participants as the composite seemed to produce a new holistic face in which it was difficult to perceive the separate halves. A particularly intriguing find was that if the composite faces were inverted participants could name the to half much better than when the faces were the correct way up, despite the fact that inverted faces are normally much harder to recognise. Similar research involves disrupting the configuration of the faces in other ways, either by scrambling the facial features or by inverting the face. Haig (1984) showed how recognition times increased for faces of famous people where the spacing between features or the configuration of features had been altered. Yin (1969) found that inverted faces are much harder to recognise. Although errors are found when attempting to recognise any object that has been inverted, faces seem to produce particular difficulties. Cohen (1989) suggests that this demonstrates that faces are normally recognised holistically, and inversion destroys the global pattern relationships between features. Thus, such findings could be interpreted as evidence for the holistic approach to face recognition.Mohammad A consensus has developed that the process underlying face identification (meaning the process by which a person recognizes a visual stimulus as being Aunt Bertha, my mail carrier, or Arnold Schwarzenegger) and the process underlying most forms of basic-level object recognition (Meaning the process by which a person recognizes a visual stimulus as being a table, a boat, or a human face) are different. A number of lines of evidence showing dissociations between face identification and basic-level object recognition support this conclusion. For example, faces are more difficult to identify in photographic negatives than are basic-level objects (Bruce Langton, 1994; Galper, 1970; Galper Hochberg, 1971; Phillips, 1972), and faces show greater recognition costs when turned upside down than do basic-level objects (Carey Diamond, 1977;Scapinello Yarmey, 1970; Yin, 1969; see Valentine, 1988, for a review). Additional evidence that face identification and basic level object recognition are accomplished by different processes comes from work in neuroscience. Sergent, Ohta, and MacDonald (1992), using positron emission tomography (PET), found regions of the right hemisphere that become active during face identification that are not active during basic-level object recognition. Further, a righthemisphere advantage for identifying faces is well documented (for reviews, see Davidoff, 1982; H. D. Ellis, 1983), whereas the evidence for hemispheric specialization during basic-level object recognition is far less clear, with some studies finding a left-hemisphere advantage (Bryden Rainey, 1963; McKeever Jackson, 1979; Wyke Ettlinger, 1961; Young, Bion, Ellis, 1980), others finding aright-hemisphere advantage (Schmuller Goodman, 1980), and still others finding no advantage for one hemisphere over the other (Biederman Cooper, 1991; Kimura Durnford, 1974; Levine Banich, 1982). Perhaps the most persuasive evidence that basic-level object recognition and face identification are accomplished by different processes comes from studies of brain-damaged patients showing a neurological double dissociation between the two processes. Farah (1994) found 27 cases in the literature in which patient showed impaired face identification but intact basiclevel object recognition and 16 cases in which a patient showed impaired basic-level object recognition but intact face identification, arguing strongly that different neural subtract underline with two tasks Given that face identification and basic-level object recognition occur through different processes, the next logical question to consider is how the memory representations used for the two processes might differ. The most common speculation in the current literature is that faces use configured or holistic representations, whereas basic-level objects use featural representations. Unfortunately, this method of characterizing the differences in the representations is rather vague, and as OToole, Abdi, Deffenbacher, and Valentin (1995) and Bruce and Humphreys (1994) pointed out, it has different meanings for different researchers. When researchers say that face identification uses Further support for a holistic model of face recognition comes from studies investigating the superiority of recognition over recall. People have been found to be consistently better at recognising faces seen before than they are at recalling them. A study by Ellis et al (1975) illustrates the difficulties involved in recalling faces. Participants were shown six photographs of male faces for ten seconds and then asked them immediately to recall the face so that it could be reconstructed using photo fit materials. When judges attempted to pick out the target face from the photo fit reconstructions only an average of 12.5% identifications were correct indicating that the reconstructed faces did not closely resemble the original stimulus face. It seems that in order to describe a face we need to convert our stored mental representations of that face into words. The fact that this seems to be so difficult and so ineffective as illustrated in this study would indicate that we do store faces as wholes rather than as sets of separate features. According to Bruce and Youngs Holistic model of face recognition there are different types of information that can be obtained from faces, some of which are used for familiar faces and others for unfamiliar faces. When firstly we see a face it is encoded structurally, meaning that we encode the visual information, processing the look of the face. If this matches an existing face recognition unit (FRU) then this will be activated. The FRU contains not just physical information but also semantic knowledge. Activation of the FRU triggers activation of the person identity node which enables access to a wealth of information about the person including their occupation, interests, where we normally encounter them, whether we are comfortable with them or not, whether we have friends in common or not. The final stage in the recognition process allows for name generation. According to Bruce and Young names are stored separately to the FRU and person identity nodes but can only be accessed via the identity nodes. This would explain the frustrating and embarrassing experience of knowing lots of details about a person we meet but not being able to think of their name. Young, Hay and Ellis tested the Holistic model in 1985. They asked participants to keep a diary and record problems experienced in face recognition every day. Out of 1008 incidents there were no reports of naming an individual without knowing other information about them. But in 190 cases the opposite occurred, participants reported knowing information about individuals but could not name them. These findings are consistent with the sequence of events proposed by the holistic model where by names can only be accessed if semantic information been accessed first. Further analysis of the diary data showed that of the 1008 incidents there were 233 reports of experiencing familiarity without any personal information being available. Again this supports the sequential nature of the model as these would be cases where an FRU has been triggered causing the feeling of familiarity, but the identity Node has failed to activate, hence the lack of availability of any further information about the person. Holistic form theory is an alternative to feature analysis approach to face recognition. Although features are important in describing faces and therefore do have some role to play in face recognition, reliance only on bottom up processing for such a complex activity is very unlikely. According to the Holistic approach a face is recognised as a whole, analysing not just the separate features but also the configuration of the face, the relationship between the individual features, feelings aroused by the face and semantic information about the face. There is also another theory called feature analysis theory which is an example of a bottom up theory in which it is suggested that analysis if individual facial features plays a crucial role in face recognition.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The impact of WTO in India Impact of WTO on India India is a founder member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1947 and its successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO), which came into effect in 1995 after the conclusion of the Uruguay Round (UR) of Multilateral Trade Negotiations. Indias participation in an increasingly rule based system in the governance of international trade is to ensure more stability and predictability, which ultimately would lead to more trade and prosperity for itself and the 134 other nations which now comprise the WTO. India also automatically avails of MFN and national treatment for its exports to all WTO Members. Ministerial Conferences of WTO The first Ministerial Conference held in 1996 in Singapore saw the commencement of pressures to enlarge the agenda of WTO. Pressures were generated to introduce new Agreements on Investment, Competition Policy, Transparency in Government Procurement and Trade Facilitation. The concept of Core Labor Standards was also sought to be introduced. India and the developing countries, who were already under the burden of fulfilling the commitments undertaken through the Uruguay Round Agreements, and who also perceived many of the new issues to be non-trade issues, resisted the introduction of these new subjects into WTO. They were partly successful. The Singapore Ministerial Conference (SMC) set up open ended Work Program to study the relationship between Trade and Investment; Trade and Competition Policy; to conduct a study on Transparency in Government Procurement practices; and do analytical work on simplification of trade procedures (Trade Facilitation). Most importantly the SMC clearly declared on the Trade- Labor linkage as follows: We reject the use of labor standards for protectionist purposes, and agree that the comparative advantage of countries, particularly low-wage developing countries, must in no way be put into question. In this regard we note that the WTO and ILO Secretariat will continue their existing collaboration. The Second Ministerial Conference of WTO, held at Geneva in May 1998, established a process to prepare for the Third Ministerial Conference and to submit recommendations regarding the WTOs future work program, which would enable Members to take decisions at the Third Ministerial Conference at Seattle. The Geneva Ministerial Conference (GMC) Declaration had identified the following issues for the General Councils work, paragraphs 9(a) to 9(b) of the Declaration: Issues, including those brought forward by Members, relating to implementation of existing agreements and decisions; The negotiations already mandated at Marrakesh (Agriculture and Services) and to ensure that such negotiations begin on schedule; Mandated reviews already provided for under other existing agreements and decisions taken at Marrakesh; Recommendations concerning other possible future work on the basis of the work program initiated at Singapore Ministerial Conference consisting of: Trade and Investment; Trade and Competition Policy; Transparency in Government Procurement; Trade Facilitation. Recommendations on the follow-up to the High-Level Meeting on Least-Developed countries; Recommendations arising from consideration of other matters proposed and agreed to by Members concerning their multilateral trade relations. The 3rd Ministerial Conference held in Seattle during 30th November-3rd December, 1999 was being looked up by many, specially in the developing countries, as a launching pad for a comprehensive round of negotiations. In the preparatory process in the General Council of the WTO (September 1998 to September 1999), new issues which were proposed for the negotiating agenda by some Members under paragraph 9(d) are as follows: Industrial Tariffs Global Electronic Commerce Trade and Labour Standards Trade and Environment Coherence in the interaction of WTO and other international organizations. Outcome of the Seattle Ministerial Conference of WTO The Indian delegation to the Third Ministerial Conference of the WTO was led by the Union Minister of Commerce Industry, Mr. Murasoli Maran. The delegation also included Members of Parliament, senior officials from different Ministries and representatives from the apex Chambers of commerce and industry. The Seattle Conference attracted wide attention because of proposals by some countries to press for the launching of a comprehensive round of negotiations covering subjects as wide ranging as labour issues, coherence in global economic architecture, agriculture etc. Even before the commencement of the Conference there were widespread protests and demonstrations in Seattle by a number of anti-WTO groups ranging from environmental activists to labour unions. The inaugural session which was to be held in the forenoon of 30th November, 1999 had to be abandoned because of disturbances. The plenary which was to start in the afternoon on the same day had to be held under heavy police protection. The Chairmen of various Working Groups tried to narrow down the differences in their respective groups with a view to arriving at a consensus in the draft Ministerial text that had been transmitted from the Geneva preparatory process. However, in view of the wide divergence of views, no group could present draft texts for inclusion in the Ministerial declaration acceptable to all the members. As there was no prospect of reaching a conclusion on a large number of issues, it was decided after consultation among key members that it would not be practicable to adopt any Ministerial declaration. The Chairperson of the Conference made only a brief statement on 3rd December followed by brief reports by the Chairmen of the various groups. The Chairperson observed that divergences of opinion remained that would take time to be narrowed down. It was therefore, decided to suspend the work of the Seattle Ministerial Conference. While the above constituted the overall outcome, the deliberations and consultations which took place on several of the important issues are briefly outlined below subject-wise (these positions are indicative and not definitive since a number of delegations, including ourselves, made it clear that nothing was agreed until everything was agreed). Implementation issues : A good deal of discussions took place on this subject in Seattle, further to the extensive consultations held in Geneva earlier. The Working Group Chairman (Canada) came up with a final proposal (similar to what was mooted by the Secretariat) that meant a few immediate decisions at Seattle and establishment of a special mechanism to examine and make recommendations within one year, and in any case by the Fourth Ministerial Session, on other implementation issues. The Chairmans text also proposed negotiations in respect of Anti-Dumping and Subsidies Agreements. While India and most other countries were prepared to go along with the Chairmans text, the US had reservations and was opposed to any negotiations on anti-dumping and subsidies and could, at the most, agree to a few (not all) of the issues raised by the Committee on Anti-Dumping and Subsidies respectively. No consensus could, therefore, emerge. Agriculture : Mandated negotiations have to commence on 1.1.2000 on Agriculture. In the run-up to Seattle,however, the Cairns Group of countries supported by US sought to secure a more rigorous negotiating mandate that would speed up elimination/ reduction of their export/domestic subsidies. EC, Japan, Norway etc., resisted this to the very end. While EC appeared to display some flexibility on this issue, Japan put up stiff opposition on further inroads into elimination of domestic subsidies.As for India, our concerns relating to food security were adequately reflected. Services: No substantive negotiation took place in Seattle as there was hardly any divergence of views on the draft text which adequately takes into account Indias concerns. Investment and Competition Policy: India, Malaysia, Hong Kong, China and Pakistan proposed the continuation of the study process launched at Singapore. EC and others stubbornly argued that they wanted negotiations to be launched right away. Given this, the talks broke off but a bridge proposal which aimed at carrying forward the study process to prepare for negotiations to be launched by the Fourth Ministerial Conference began to take shape. While India, Malaysia, Hong Kong, China and Pakistan continued to oppose even the bridge proposal, a number of other developing countries (including countries such as Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka and Egypt) showed inclination to agree to launch negotiations or to agree to the compromise proposal. Market Access for non-agricultural items: There was virtually no opposition for the launching of negotiations in this area except that a number of developing countries including ourselves pointed out the priority that we attached to the implementation issues and made it clear that agreeing to any text on this issue depended on progress in other areas. The text which evolved during the Green Room consultations left open the modalities to be followed for the tariff reduction exercise although the APEC countries wanted a specific reference to their Accelerated Tariff Liberalisation (ATL) initiative. EU wanted a common tariff reduction method to be adopted for all countries while certain others preferred a formula approach to be the main methodology. While our concerns were largely met in the draft text, the US insisted on avoiding any reference to peak-tariffs saying it was a politically sensitive issue. Several developing countries, including us, however, firmly opposed the substitutio n of peak tariffs by any other phraseology. This matter still needs to be resolved. Transparency in Government Procurement: There were broadly three proposals on this subject at the Seattle Ministerial. First, that the Working Group should continue its work until the fourth Ministerial session. India and number of developing countries supported this proposal. Second, that the Seattle Ministerial should mandate commencement of negotiations based on the elements that had formed the basis of discussion in the Working Group with the objective of concluding an Agreement at the latest by the Fourth Ministerial session. A number of developed and developing countries such as Brazil and South Africa supported this proposal. Third, that the Ministers adopt at Seattle an Agreement on Transparency in Government Procurement based on the formulation proposed by the United States and the European Communities. After further discussions in the open-ended Seattle Working Group on Singapore issues and other issues, its Chairman gave his understanding that there was virtual consensus a mong Members present on the second proposal. He noted that India was the only Member present that stated that it could not join such a consensus and urged India to reconsider its position. India had stated that it could only support further work in the Working Group aimed at arriving at a consensus on the elements of a Transparency agreement. Trade and Environment: Developed countries, particularly EU, were very keen on negotiations on environment related issues to accommodate concerns of their civil society. They wanted environmental considerations integrated throughout the negotiations in the new Round (mainstreaming) which will also dilute the focussed mandate of the Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE ) to that extent. USA was further keen that Members right to set high environmental standards was not undermined by trade rules. US and CAIRNS Group countries also called for the removal of environmentally damaging subsidies such as agricultural subsidies and fishery subsidies that contributed to over capacity. Developing countries sought adjustments in the TRIPS Agreement for preservation of biological diversity and reward for traditional knowledge. The proposal to mainstream environment and dilute the role of CTE and the US proposal regarding environmental standards were opposed by some developing countries includi ng India while there was considerable support for removal of environment- related subsidies. The TRIPS related proposals were supported by some, but there was no consensus. Intellectual Property: Many members were willing to complete the negotiations on the establishment of a multilateral system of notification and registration of geographical indications for wines and possibly spirits, while there was an emerging consensus for an early decision on the ongoing discussions on inclusion of other products for the higher level of protection as has been provided to wines under Art 23 of TRIPS. Other work programmes proposed to be launched at Seattle included a proposal to make recommendations to the Fourth Ministerial Conference on the scope for protection for traditional knowledge and folkfore under the TRIPS Agreement, and review of Article 71.1, including enhancing the Agreement to respond to its objectives and principles as well as new developments elsewhere, and of Article 27.3(b) relating to life forms and plant varieties. Other issues: There were a few other issues which were less controversial. Subjects belonging to this category included E-commerce and trade facilitation. A proposal to set up a working group on transfer of Technology, supported by India also found wide support but was opposed by USA, while EC and some others preferred discussions on this issue within the Committee on Trade and Development. On the other hand, the proposed Working Group on Bio-technology, pursued by USA was hardly discussed because of strong opposition from many members, including India. Regarding transparency in the functioning of WTO, US and EU were keen for some kind of mechanism whereby civil society could participate in the WTO functioning, inter alia, through amicus curiae briefs in the trade dispute settlement mechanism. But this was sharply opposed by India and many other developing countries. Conclusion : Thus WTO has been playing a very important role in Indias foreign trade. And India will be much more benefited if the present DOHA round gets completed. Pascal Lamy has projected that it will be completed in the year of 2012.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Association with in Uterine Exposure and Asthma :: Medical, Health, Medicine
Scientists have studied the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regards to many health defects in humans, one of them being asthma. Asthma is a chronic condition regarding the respiratory system. Muscles in the respiratory system, specifically the lungs and the trachea, tighten causing a narrowing of the passageways in which air flows through. The constrictions of the respiratory organs can cause many symptoms that include strained breathing and tension of the chest (Friis, 2012). In the United States alone, asthma is considered to be the most common long-term disease that affects particularly and most frequently children (Al-Daghri et al. 2013). According to Kyung Jung, asthma in children has multiplied since 1980, when it was a low 3.6 percent to a now high 9.6 percent (Jung et al. 2013). The causative agents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are precarious material created from the partial burning of petroleum-based chemicals that have been known to be one of the collaborators for asthma (Friis 2012). Additionally, PAHs can be made by the incomplete burning of organic compounds, such as wood, coal, and especially tobacco (Al-Daghri et al. 2013). There have been studies conducted to demonstrate the affects and higher prevalence of asthma in children who are exposed to PAHs in an in utero state. Children exposed in the womb, along with asthma and the known causative agent, PAHs, will be the principle course of study. Four studies have been conducted to analyze the serious effects of PAHs. The research consists of work performed by Sophie Chu, Nasser Al-Daghri, Dr. Mathew Perzanowski, and Wan-yee Tang and each of their colleagues; all of which directed their own studies and research in regards to pollution exposed to children and asthma. For instance, Nasser Al-Daghri directed research on children in Saudi Arabia and found that nearly 3 million children experience the hardships of asthma (2013). For this reason and many others, PAHs and its ef fects in growing fetuses have been investigated worldwide. There is evidence from the findings of the previously mentioned researchers that in uterine exposure to PAHs are associated with childhood asthma. Sophie Chu and her colleagues postulated that exposures to PAH before birth and after birth would cause an intensification of airway hyperreactivity, thus showing signs of asthma. Chu collected mice for her research and acquired a mixture containing the same quantity of PAHs a pregnant woman would regularly consume. She also acquired a vaporized control solution made of almost entirely of decontaminated water (99.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Harmful Legalization The United States government has seen fit to pass laws prohibiting the sale, manufacture, and possession of dangerous and destructive substances such as marijuana. In opportunistic and negligent haste, fringe aspects of society are seeking to undo laws regarding the restriction of marijuana. These factions have ignored the risks associated with marijuana, falsified information regarding its medical use, and ignore the greater issue with regards to the legalization of harmful substances. LSD, angle dust, and cocaine have several things in common, not the least of which is like marijuana, they are each responsible for the deaths of countless individuals. While a subject will find it difficult to outright end his life with marijuana, it does cause harmful damage to both the user and those around him. Each marijuana cigarette is exponentially more damaging to the lungs of the smoker and those around him than a typical tobacco cigarette. Further, contrary to claims of the harmlessness of marijuana by some advocates, each time it is used, it obliterates a portion of brain cells that can never grow back. Also the active ingredient in marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, has been linked to fetal damage, hormonal swings, a slight addiction rate, lower sperm counts and accelerated heart rates, none of which are anything approaching good health for a user. Other aspects besides a userÃ¢â¬â¢s physical body suffer when he or she decides to use marijuana. The emotional damage marijuana causes can be best summed up by a quote from researcher Damon Linker Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦it (marijuana) does produce a pathology of the soulÃ¢â¬ (Linker). Everyone around the user suffers, because while he or she is in a drug-induced haze he or she neglects his or her friends, family and responsibilities. By escaping the subject simply dulls his or her pain from various troubles for a moment and does nothing to solve that which plagues him or her. Because of this, users will find themselves trapped within a vicious, unending cycle of getting high and forgetting, to coming down and needing the next fix, to getting high again. Upon realizing that the marijuana isnÃ¢â¬â¢t what is required to take away their pain, some will turn to other harder drugs such as cocaine. There may be other reasons for people to start using marijuana, but there is an unacceptable large risk that some of these new users w... ... For to claim the latter logically leads one to the bizarre judgment that Mother Teresa is no more and no less virtuous than Adolph HitlerÃ¢â¬Å"] (Beckwith). This way of thinking is detrimental to our society as a whole. When we refuse to take a stand against something that is morally wrong, we in fact, aid that cause. This allows the minority to dictate the terms to the majority. Look at Germany, 1932; Hitler was elected to power, because only fifteen percent of the country came out to vote. In our own country less than one-third of the people are in favor of marijuana legalization; of that number surely not all of them will ever use marijuana. We know that marijuana physically and emotionally harms people, has no medicinal value, and only a small minority of people of the country will use this drug, so why should it be legalized? The answer obviously is that it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Nor should we let the minority dictate terms to the rest of the country. This situation reminds me of a quote I heard from my grandpa: Ã¢â¬Å"The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.Ã¢â¬ ￼ The chart above shows the Ohio drug-violation arrests starting from 2000 to 2004.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
What ideas about discovery are conveyed by Peter WeirÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËDead Poets SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢ and one other text? The process of discovery has the ability to greatly impact an individual resulting in them having new ideas and perceptions on themselves and others. These ideas differ for all individuals as each has their own experiences and develops from them in unique and personal ways. This is clearly evident in the film Ã¢â¬ËDead Poets SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢ by Peter Weir as it is a text which significantly focuses on the concept of contrast. Throughout this concept viewers are allowed an in-depth demonstration of the protagonists Neil Perry and Todd AndersonÃ¢â¬â¢s negative and positive experiences which have been caused by their strive to achieve individualism after a new English teacher John Keating introduces his pupils to poetry and free thinking attitude. Ã¢â¬ËFireworkÃ¢â¬â¢ a song co-written and performed by Katy Perry is also a text which conveys that discovery is a proc ess that can lead to enlightenment and enable one to be more acceptant of who they once they disregard the socially constructed expectations that mass media communicates. Throughout Perter WeirÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËDead Poets SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢ viewers are able to understand that discovery itself is a process of transformation that can lead to new ideas which in turn have positive effects on an individual. This can be seen in the scene where Professor Keating educates his students the act of conformity. When Keating states its definition as Ã¢â¬Å"the difficulty of maintaining your own beliefs in the face of othersÃ¢â¬ the audience are able to identify the contrast between the professor Keating and principal NolanÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes and values towards educations throughout the mise-en-scene displaying Nolan in a small, dark and mysterious room caged by the large steel poles representing the strict and prestigious nature of the institution. This allows the audience to realise that the students are able to better develop their skills when allowed to be free from the forces of conformity the institution brings. When the students are told to find their Ã¢â¬Å" own walkÃ¢â¬ it clear that they do so to achieve becoming their own unique individual. Furthermore, during the ending of the film a full shot is utilised to capture the majority of students standing on their tables portraying the extent to which professor Keating has made an impact on his pupils. Earlier in the film Keating too stood on his table to Ã¢â¬Å"remind himself to look at things in a different wayÃ¢â¬ hence it can be said that his student are following in his footsteps allowing the professor to depart fromÃ the academy without any regret. Even though discovery may lead to new understandings and perceptions these may not result in positive ways but will also have the ability to result in negative outcomes for both individual and those closes by .As a result of KeatingÃ¢â¬â¢s newly introduced philosophies, protagonist Neil Perry further endeavours to fulfil his passion and desire to become an actor however does so by forging his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s signature on a consent form that would allow him to perform his act. When NeilÃ¢â¬â¢s father objects to him p ursuing his dreams, he is told that he will Ã¢â¬Å"go to Harvard and become a doctorÃ¢â¬ . Through the use of the low camera angle looking up towards his father, strong facial expression displaying authority and superiority are apparent. As a result viewers are able to comprehend that Neil is in no position to change or even slightly alter his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. However, when NeilÃ¢â¬â¢s mother advises that he Ã¢â¬Å"get some sleepÃ¢â¬ a close up of the individuals face presents a mysterious and worrisome smile resulting in the creation of suspense and confusion in the audience. The mise-en-scene displaying a weak and still hand behind a table centimetres away from a gun, viewers are able to reach the tragic conclusion of Neil PerryÃ¢â¬â¢s death in a confronting and unexpected way. Ã¢â¬ËFireworkÃ¢â¬â¢ a song co-written and performed by Katy Perry is a text which significantly exemplifies the experience of discovering something that has been concealed by of society and in particular the expectations that are constantly forced upon individuals through mass media that must be disregarded to proceed to the new finding. The music video features a number of characters overcoming numerous social issues such as body image, homosexuality, bullying, the effect of conflict between parents on their children and the acceptance of having a medical illness. Throughout the chorus the term Ã¢â¬Å"fireworkÃ¢â¬ is used to symbolise the spark inside all individuals that must first be Ã¢â¬Å"ignitedÃ¢â¬ or in other words believed in to enable them to achieve their goals and accomplish their dreams. Additionally, fireworks are used as visual metaphors to represent the time when one becomes enlightened and acceptant of who they truly are regardless of what society expects of them. In conclusion, both texts Ã¢â¬ËDead Poets SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢ by Peter Weir and Ã¢â¬ËFireworkÃ¢â¬â¢ by Katy Perry complement each other in the sense that they both successfully provide the audience with diverse concepts and ideas of discovery. Whether they may be negative or positive,Ã each educates viewers in having varying ideas about the consequences that may be caused by ones decision after they access new, original understandings and perceptions of themselves.
Monday, September 16, 2019
What Is the Research Topic you are responsible for? The Importance of mentoring to develop fresh graduates In work place. What are the Findings from your Research on this topic? In today's rapidly advancing society, there are many fresh graduates from top colleges and universities with good grades who are still unable to meet their work targets or cope with the pace of work. Before when they enter or just started their first career, they have to face a lot of unknown circumstances and requirements.Therefore, a mentoring program is so much needed to them. Mentoring is the act to build up a relationship between two people; Ã¢â¬Å"mentorÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"mantleÃ¢â¬ . Mentor will be providing guidance and shared their knowledge and experiences to develop a realistic expectation of the work. The following is some advantages which important:- 1 . Help to analysis- Mentor can help mantle assess career strengths and weaknesses and also determine future goals. 2. Help to familiarize ? abou t the Important individuals within the field, including sources for new ideas regarding content. 3.Help New Entry smoothly into the new company Ã¢â¬â become more knowledgeable, understanding and entering into the prevailing culture. 4. Help to provide a safety net Ã¢â¬â social support In a potentially stressful situation. 5. Help to enhances performance level Ã¢â¬â giving advice or guides to accelerates learning to support their development. 6. Help to promote development effectively Ã¢â¬â help to guide the direction and provide feedback, providing technical and professional knowledge and skill to promote development effectively. And also giving proper guidance can avoid the mistakes which will affect performance.In addition to the above, mentoring programs in organizations can be helpful in Improving performance and also achieve higher productivity so may lead to higher lob satisfaction. Thus, mentoring during Induction period can offer support in :- 1 . Help to underst and about the working practices and discuss or guiding about the issues which relating to the role. 2. Conducive to the rapid absorption of cultural and social norms organizations also learn about which they need to know to succeed In lob role. 3. Help or navigate their way when came to a new specific job or particular area of responsibility. . Sharing business information and work skills, accelerate the recesses for the identifying, developing and retaining talent to increase the Job satisfaction. Are there other opinions on this topic? The negative experiences, however, are most often to seen in organization which without a formal mentoring process, example Like not tied to business goal, without tracking system for mentoring relationship and without structure support. Some of those negative is occurs between mentor and mantle, such like mentor which 1 OFF due to a lack of knowledge and interest on the role which as a mentor.What is your conclusion on actions to achieve improvemen ts? Even with the possibility of negative situation than can occur, the strong advantages of mentoring program is a powerful tool to help fresh graduates in their career by increasing productivity, gain a broader perspective, knowledge and insight into the work practices and also develop a realistic expectation of the work. Reference List Kale, L. (2011). Making a Mentoring Relationship Work: What is Required for Organizational Success. Applied Business and Economics, 12, 49-50. Susan, M. (2011). Use Mentoring to Develop Employees [website].
Sunday, September 15, 2019
The definition of psychology is considered to very limited, as specialists from other fields try to prove. The usual notion about psychology is that it exists as a channel of understanding and making some measurements in behavior of humans and other species (Eysenck, 2004). The study of human behavior has been very interesting to many fields of expertise due to its complexity and difficulty. Fields other than psychology: biology, psychiatry, sociology, and many other medical applications are just few of the fields in which discussions regarding the aforementioned topic have been very well explored. In this regard, the experts combined in their efforts to form more credible results in the explanation of the basis of human behavior. Ethically, socially, and legally, behavior is an important tool to understand and explain such those subject matters (Carson & Rothstein, 1999). Goldsmith (1991), on his book The Biological Roots of Human Nature: Forging Links Between Evolution and Behavior, mentions about the huge involvement of biology into studying the fields of the humanists, social scientists, philosophers, and historians; that they should also include biological principles in the analysis of human behavior. He emphasizes that there should be two considerations in studying humansÃ¢â¬â¢ social behavior, that is, there should be integration of physiology, biochemistry, and the mechanism of behavior in the social aspect. He stressed about the evolution of human behavior to be dissected in biological terms. Anderson (2006) still improves this claim by saying that a criminal behavior for example, maybe is because of the impaired hormonal secretions of the specific body organs. Motives and the bodily processes should be taken into consideration to understand the individual differences with respect to personality and intellectual differentiation (Eysenck, 2004). A more interesting theory was formulated by Cesare Lombroso, about the facial types, and the way that a criminal can be identified. He based most of his explanations in a biological sense in the same way that the Germans suspected genetics to be effective in identification of people with criminal tendencies at the top of the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s rulership. It was then that several psychological explanations about criminal behavior have been accepted (Anderson, 2006). Plato also mentioned that criminality is the effect of the mind being imprisoned by an obscurity of thought which he connected brain being the biological component. It was studied by theorists and researchers in evolutionary biology the patterns regarding the kind of thinking depending on the life stage, whether young or adolescent: including parameters such as their problem-solving capacities and their academic competencies. Other cognitive domains were also associated to this behavioral study: the spatial abilities, mathematical abilities, verbal communication etc. (Lisi & Lisi, 2001). To be included in this paper are the dissection of the two parts suspected to be working in one direction of behavioral and of biological nature: the explanation of fear and its relation with the amygdala. A Brief background on Fear Fear is the emotion related to the feeling being in a dangerous state, which are actually tangible and realistic. Another definition is given to anxiety, which is often named as fear, because anxiety is the feeling of being in danger but there is no actuality. Watson and Ekman mentioned that fear is no other special feeling. It is just at the same level as joy and anger. Fear is described as a mechanism of survival, which arrives from exposure to negative things, or the negative stimulus. Fear is usually connected to the disagreement to feel pain (Coan & Allen, 2007). Personal fear can be classified as caution, phobia and paranoia. Fear is manifested when someone feels anxious, worried, frightened, in terror, paranoid and many other negative feelings. Paranoia is achieved when fear is so much heightened. When someone is observed to be in extreme change in behavior, and his attitude has gone extremely changed, one is said to be paranoid. Caution on the other hand is an interpersonal experience that makes a person feel that he could not trust anyone who is a strange to him. The person feels very different in the presence of the person whom he distrusts and only calms down when that person has gone distance away from his comfortable zone. Terror is a very pronounced classification of fear, which arises from a horrific experience. The person in a state of terror feels always in the vicinity of an immediate danger. The non-typical behavior of the person arises, making him irrational at some point. The subconscious feeling of fear can be extended nightmares. There are other effects on the person whenever he fears something. Physiologically, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic. The person may be observed to, or feel in himself being hindered from physical movement. Perspiration may also occur as the blood in the body is being forced from the viscera to other peripheral parts of the body. This blood at the periphery carries oxygen, nutrients and heat, which causes the body to feel warm or hot, therefore the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s mechanism is to perspire, to release the excess heat to cool down the body. Along with this, the body will experience fast heart rate. Phobia A very interesting topic which deals with the concept of fear is called phobia. Phobia is fear of something. It may be because of a very unwanted experience towards that something that someone fears, or just a transferred rumor that something negative might happen when that object is encountered. Different types of phobia exist depending on the object of fear. In the context of classical conditioning, phobias come from a mixture of internal dispositions and external factors (Lewis & Haviland-Jones, 2000). The experiments of Seligman resulted to his conclusion of objects being feared are genetically predispositioned. He also mentions that for many cases, traumatic experience triggers phobia. Biology, together with life experiences, can be well explained A malfunctioning amygdale can cause psychological disorders. Patients are not able to classify neutral faces, identifying them as threat. Hyperactivity in the amygdala was observed by researchers when patients are shown frightening situations. Other patients with severe cases of phobia showed a corresponding increase in the amygdale activity. The left amygdala manifested hyperactivity when excitation like fear happened. The book Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals emerged in the 19th century. Charles Darwin emphasized here that the evolution of species has a counterpart cross culturally and universally. A research conducted by Paul Ekman involved facial expression experiment. Using neuroimaging differences in their evolutionary ancient brain parts were observed for changes, with corresponding changes in potential which was an increase (Doux, 2004). Theories about Emotion and Behavior The Somatic Behaviors William James started the study of emotions and largely argued about that emotional experience is mainly an effect of changes in the body (James, 2007). James, together with Carl Lange created James-Lange theory. This theory has a biological perspective of viewing the change in emotion as being accompanied next by bodily changes. They emphasize that the change in the state of the body is manifested through the change in emotion. The bodily reactions are considered to be the cause for the change in emotion as felt by a person (Barrett, Niedenthal, & Winkielman, 2005). This theory simply says that we tend to react first in a situation, for example is running because of an event that could make us run, then the emotional manifestation is then felt or executed. In short, we react first before we get to feel the emotion. Another somatic theory where James-Lane also falls is the Perceptual theory which is known to be a neo-Jamesian theory. The Cognitive Behaviors with Biological Perspective On the other hand, the Cannon-Bard theory nullifies the claims of James-Lange theory and still believes on the previous pattern. This is a cognitive theory that contradicts a somatic theory of emotions. The Two Factor theory, also known as the Singer Ã¢â¬âSchachter theory rests on the hypothesis that respondents can have different emotional reactions as affected by adrenaline, considering that they have the same initial physiological state. The respondents were monitored for the emotion they are going to feel, whether happiness or anger, when a person on the same situation felt anger or happiness. The determination of the responses was based on the cognitive aspect or when the situation undergoes appraisal, or the physiological or biological aspect as adrenaline was injected to them. In connection to this, Klaus Scherer made a recent cognitive theory that stresses the connection on different bodily functions in combination to the cognitive components. The Amygdala Emotionality was discovered because of the bilateral ablation of the temporal lobe responses in the brain (Weiner, 2003). The part of the brain that is responsible for the feeling of fear is the amygdala. It is a tonsil shaped group of neurons situated at the inside portion of the temporal lobe of humans, including other species under the phylum vertebrata. The emotional reaction is being executed by this part of the brain which is also responsible for emotional stimulation (Kadish, 1994; Lewis & Haviland-Jones, 2000; Phelps, OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, Gatenby, Gore, & Davis, 2001). In the process of fear conditioning, a part of the amygdala, the basolateral complexes help in the mediation of stimuli to the memory. These are brought to the synapses and later on passed to the central nucleus of the nerve, which is involved in the generation of many fear responses that includes immobilization of the body, increased respiration, and release of stress hormones. The type of conditioning called the Pavlovian conditioning may be caused by the damage in this part of the brain. The functions of the amygdala were looked at to account for the emotional and motivational properties it dictates in the brain. The amygdala is a small structure at the cortex which lies deep within the brainÃ¢â¬â¢s temporal lobe. Even small, it possesses a complicated neuroanatomy. It receives a large amount of neural inputs to the many parts of the brain, both the minor and major parts of the cortex. The heterogeneity of the structure of amygdala is due to the evolutionary reason that it comes from different parts of the brain which separated from a common point. The heterogeneous description is due to the differences in the structures of the neurons as already explained in the previous statement. There were so many description proposed to amygdale regarding its function, and it was by (Johnson, 1923) that the introduction of the description of the amygdale commonly used today. The nuclei of the amygdala should be described as divided into two groups, the primitive group and the recent group (Moore & Oaksford, 2002). A third part was suggested to be occupying the ventricular floor of the cortex (Alheid & Heimer, 1988). The amygdala is said to be well placed in that position because it is able to gather signals from almost every part of the brain, integrates them all, and is responsible for the processing to arrive at what kind of emotion shall be executed by humans and other species. Research in emotions has been exploiting the amygdala in experimentations. The different types of emotions, fear as example, have different mechanisms in the brain but actually goes to the same pathway which is trying to escape, or of which implies behavioral inhibition (Lewis & Haviland-Jones, 2000). The impulses sent by the amygdala can have two general effects: first is the modulation of the memoryÃ¢â¬â¢s retention time for long term responses; second is the influence on attention and perception. The retention of the episodic events is crucial in the emotional response so that the event is not forgotten. In this way we are more likely to be aware of the emotional events compared to the neutral events. Experiments dealing with the delay of fear responses were done to account for the effect of amygdala. Respondents were instructed to use an active emotion regulation strategy to lower conditioned fear responses. It was found out that doing this lowers the physiological expression of the CR and CS activation of the amygdala. It was deduced from the experiment that cognitive strategies and control mechanisms during fear conditioning and by just viewing negative scenes can disrupt or alter the responses of the amygdala. The studies presented regarding the instructed fear implies that conditioned fear is not necessarily affected by the awareness in cognition and understanding of the emotional properties. It was also found out that there are many things that can affect the amygdala aside from these two. Dependent responses such as the aversive properties, symbolic communication can also affect the function of the amygdala. Cognitive control mechanisms can be tapped also in the execution of different emotion regulation strategies which can diminish the amygdala responses to strong emotions such as fear. Another study conducted by Phillips and Le Doux (1992) was concerned not just with the contribution of amygdala on the procurement of the conditioned fear responses using a cue, but with the participation of another part of the brain which is the hippocampus. It was found out that for rats, under the unoperated conditions, faster responses were more susceptible to extinction than those with the responses from conditional stimuli. Lesion experiment on ratsÃ¢â¬â¢ amygdala reflected an interference on the conditioning of the fear responses to both the cues and the context. On the other hand, hippocampus lesions only affected with the conditioning of the responses, but was found out to be irresponsible for the cues (Phillips & Doux, 1992). An almost similar experiment was carried out by McKittrick and his colleagues (1996) and Blachard together with this co-researchers (1998) using remodeling of the dendrites and it was found out that this kind of treatment which involves different stress applications to the hippocampus, specifically repeated restraint stress affects the hippocampus the same way with the previous experiment. It was mentioned that amygdala behaved the same (Gazzaniga & Bizzi, 2004). Moore (2002) mentioned a study in his Emotional Cognition: From Brain to Behaviour, which puts a borderline between the functionality of the hippocampus and amygdala. Le DouxÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is often discussed in debates due to its relevance in explaining whether cognitive processes always precede an emotional experience. He said in MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s writing that the activation of amygdala by impulses from the neocortex is somewhat consistent with the notion that emotional processing is post cognitive. The hypothesis that emotional processing can be preconscious and precognitive is consistent with the experiment dealing with the thalamic inputs as the amygdale is activated. The two hemispheres of the brain are somewhat different in function with respect to its emotional role. The emotional stimuli perceived by the brain, together with its processing of emotional expressions are usually processed by the right hemisphere. They were able to prove this as they sent signals only to the right hemisphere of the brain, and it was found out that it produced faster heart rates compared to that of the impulses produced by just showing signals to the left hemisphere (Alheid & Heimer, 1988; Cheng, Knight, Smith, Stein, & Helmstetter, 2003; Davidson, 1998). This was also confirmed this hypothesis to those patients suffering from split-brain disorder. The corpus callosum, being the bridge between the two hemispheres, is severed during the operation for those who suffer from epileptic disorders. As a result of this experiment, they were able to know that the two hemispheres function independently of each other. Accurate identification or merely detection of the emotional stimuli happens only when the signal flows to the right side of the cortex. It is pointed out that whatever the hemisphere to function depends on the type of emotion that is felt during that time. The left frontal cortex is more likely to function for pleasant emotions. The right lobe on the other hand functions in the presence of unpleasant emotions. There are people whose only one side of the brain dominates, as proven by Tomarke et al. (1992). People who are dominant in left brain functions are more likely to show positive responses to stimuli, comparing to the other part which remains opposite or negative in reaction. It was further explained by the movement of the muscles of the face which kind of response occurred at the moment of stimulation. It was explained that a left facial muscle contraction is due to a positive response, whereas the right facial muscle reaction is due to a negative response. Bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Consistent pattern of behavior across different social contexts Ã¢â¬â an Example Case Amygdala has always been associated with the behavior of humans, more generally on the primates. Their social behaviors have always been connected to the cases brought about by lesions caused to the amygdala, wherein their behaviors are subjected to studies. The rhesus monkeys were the non-human primates that are of large importance to the study, since somehow these monkeys represent humans in a more dramatic way than other primates might have. The environments were different for each and every sample monkey, and their physiological characteristics were also different, one is a lesioned or lacerated monkeys and the other monkeys were just normal or unoperated monkeys. In 32 days they were subjected to a 4-monkey group interaction. They were first assessed in pairs (N. J. Emery et al. , 2001), and were already popular or familiar with each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s presence to avoid intimidation and possible aggression and depression. As observed, the operated or lesioned monkeys manifested a common or consistent behavior. Obstruction in the amygdala was suspected to be the reason. The operated monkeys were seen to be more sociable; they had better affiliation with other monkeys than with that of the non-operated monkeys. The operated monkeys showed a faster adaptation with their new partners, because of the immediate decrease in their nervous and fearful behavior relative to the controls. Other possible behaviors such as sexual behavior were not observed among the samples, both the operated and the unoperated, making the authors conclude of that the amygdala may inhibit this the sexual drive of the monkeys, and that there are still other factors that must be considered in looking at other behavioral patterns. References Alheid, G. F. , & Heimer, L. (1988). New perspectives in basal forebrain organization of special relevance for neuropsychiatric disorders: The striatopallidal, amygdaloid, and corticopetal components of substantia innominata. Neuroscience, 27, 1-39. Anderson, G. S. (2006). Biological Influences on Criminal Behavior. FL: CRC Press. Barrett, L. F. , Niedenthal, P. M. , & Winkielman, P. (2005). Emotion and Consciousness: Insights from studies of the Human Amygdala. CA: Guilford Press. Carson, R. A. , & Rothstein, M. A. (1999). Behavioral Genetics: The Clash of Culture and Biology: John Hopkins University Press. Cheng, D. T. , Knight, D. C. , Smith, C. N. , Stein, E. A. , & Helmstetter, F. J. (2003). Functional MRI of Human Amygdala Activity During Pavlovian Fear Conditioning: Stimulus Processing Versus Response Expression. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117(1), 3-10. Coan, J. A. , & Allen, J. J. B. (2007). Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessment. CA: Oxford University Press. Davidson, R. J. (1998). Neuropsychological perspectives on affective and anxiety disorders: A. VT: Psychology Press. Doux, J. L. (2004). The Emotional Brain, Fear, and the Amygdala. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 23(4), 727-738. Eysenck, M. W. (2004). Psychology: An International Perspective. VT: Psychology/Textbooks. Gazzaniga, M. S. , & Bizzi, E. (2004). The Cognitive Neurosciences. MA: MIT Press. James, W. (2007). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Cosimo, Inc. Johnson, J. B. (1923). Further contributions to the study of the evolution of the forebrain. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 25(337-481). Kadish, M. R. (1994). The Ophelia Paradox: An Inquiry Into the Conduct of Our Lives NJ: Transaction Publishers. Lewis, M. , & Haviland-Jones, J. M. (2000). Handbook of Emotions. CA: Guilford Press. Lisi, A. M. -D. , & Lisi, R. D. (2001). Biology, Society, and Behavior: The Development of Sex Differences in Cognition. CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. Moore, S. C. , & Oaksford, M. (2002). Emotional Cognition: From Brain to Behaviour. PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Phelps, E. A. , OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, K. J. , Gatenby, J. C., Gore, J. C. , & Davis, C. G. (2001). Activation of the left amygdala to a cognitive representation of fear. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 437-441. Phillips, R. G. , & Doux, J. E. L. (1992). Differential contribution of amygdala and hippocampus to cued and contextual fear conditioning. Behavioral Neuroscience, 106(2), 274-285. Weiner, I. B. e. a. (2003). Handbook of Psychology. NJ: John Wiley and Sons.