Sunday, May 17, 2020

How Pepsi compete Coca Cola in product sales - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3635 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Just before the turn of the twentieth century pharmacists would serve soda as a way to elevate indigestion (Martin, 1962). Since that time soda has become a treat for the young and old. One particular soda that has continued to survive for over a hundred years is Pepsi. Pepsi has become a global product that many people around the world are consuming. Pepsi has relied on finding new markets, especially in foreign countries. However, Coca-Cola has been more successful in foreign territory. Because of that reason, how can Pepsi compete against Coca-Cola in their product sales? Using a SWOT analysis is a good way to analyze what Pepsis strengths, weaknesses, advantages, disadvantages, and any possible threats are. Another way to analyze Pepsis position against Coca-Cola is to evaluate how well the management team is designed. How Pepsi treats people within the company as well as others in other countries is a key component to finding out if Pepsi has a lead over Coca -Cola. A strength that Pepsi has is that they are a strong core brand. Pepsi has been around for over one hundred years and they are considered to be a trusted company. Through the years Pepsi has continued to strive because it has placed a high priority to delivering value to their consumers. They have conveyed this by spending a lot of attention on their marketing efforts. Through television ads alone Pepsi continues to show the world that they have a high priority on customer preferences and tastes. This is especially relevant to the current trend that Americans have concerning their health. As a result Pepsi has expanded their product line with products like Diet Pepsi and caffeine free Pepsi. Also, they have developed a new product line of water for the health conscience (Pepsi Story, 2010). Aquafina includes flavored and sparkling water to appeal those who do not like the taste of plain water. Recognizing the weaknesses that Pepsi possess is an important way to positivel y critique to make them strengths. For example, because of the health craze consumers were turning away from soda products. There have been many claims that even the diet sodas are poor for your health and contribute to obesity. Pepsis team of managers brainstormed on how to come up with a way to battle against these changing ideas by creating new innovative ways to go with the changing times. As a result they came up with the idea of Aquafina. And to contribute their ideas further they came up with making options available to Aquafina like offering flavored water. Also, recognizing and having the ability to accept faults is important to the public perception. For example, it has become a common knowledge that many of the bottled water sold in stores are actually from tap. Pepsi made the acknowledgement and reported that they would be changing their labels. When Coca-Cola was asked what their plans were they said that they did not plan to change the labels on their Dasani bottles de spite the water comes from a public water supply (Byron, 2007). One recommendation that I would have for Pepsi would be to invest in a type of vitamin water that would be available through fountain drinks at major fast food restaurants. The only option that is available now is either diet soda or plain water in a bottle. Many consumers get bored with only water or diet soda. Vitamin water is a new youthful way to earn profits while satisfying consumer needs. Therefore, it would be good to see healthier choices available. As people see that Pepsi is involved more with the obesity epidemic there will be more people loyal to Pepsi. This is because it would show that Pepsi cares about the community and not just about making a profit by harming others. Therefore, it would put Pepsi in a positive light so people will prefer them over Coca-Cola. Also, Coca-Cola currently controls the fast food industry on sales. Lately restaurants have been given some bad publicity for serving less than healthy foods. If having vitamin water as an option those restaurants would possibly be more willing to switch from Coca-Cola products to Pepsi products. Another weakness I found is that Pepsi is mainly distributed in the United States, Canada, and Mexico (Tollison, Kaplan, Higgins, 1992). Most of their profits come from there. This is a negative thing because Coca-Cola is also prominent in these countries. However, Pepsi has outsold Coca-Cola in grocery sales (Tollison, Kaplan, Higgins, 1992). A recommendation that I have is for Pepsi to start focusing on distributing in other countries that Coca-Cola does not have a strong market in. Also, they should stop franchising in countries that there is a lack of cooperation and to focus more on distributing in the countries that are currently working together with Pepsi. Spending some time with research and development teams as well as marketing teams in those countries can be beneficial. Therefore, advertising in those countries were consumption is higher is a good start. Because of different cultural differences it would be essential to gather as much information as possible to find out how Pepsi can fit into their lifestyles. The Pepsi management has done a good job coming up with many positive opportunities for growth. Managers at Pepsi have to be dynamic to confront the ever changing trends of Pepsi. One advantage for Pepsi is that they have always taken the lead in developing new products. They would not have been successful in just developing just one product. Therefore, throughout the years they have added to their product line. Some of the major changes that happened began to develop by the 1950s. But, as time went on Pepsi started to add more products at a rapid pace. For example, in 1964, when Mountain Dew came out with it came many more items added to the product line. Along with this new product line came out a new drink Slice (Pepsi Story, 2010). Pepsi is constantly looking for new innovative wa ys to appeal to a broader consumer base. For example, Pepsi-Cola came out with new version of the original Pepsi. Now Pepsi has water, teas, coffee drinks, juices, and juice drinks in addition to the soft drinks. In addition to the growth of product lines Pepsi started to merge with other well known companies. In 1965, Pepsi merged with Frito-Lay, Inc. Merging with Frito-Lay, Inc. has become one of their most profitable investments to date (Pepsi Story, 2010). By forming with them they decided to change their name to PepsiCo, Inc. In order to keep growing the amount of customers needed to continue sales Pepsi knew that they had to keep merging or acquiring other businesses in the food industry. In the 1990s Pepsi started partnering up with other companies. In 1991 they partnered up with Lipton Company and came out with the Lipton Brisk. But the growth did not stop there. After that they partnered up with Starbuck and produced products with them. These last couple mergers were ver y important because Pepsi was expanding outside the soda industry into the snack food industry. Pepsi had merged with the Quaker Oats Company in 2001. As a result came Gatorade, There have been a lot of mergers and some were not a profitable (Caparell, 2007). For example, at one point Pepsi owned Kentucky Fried Chicken and Taco Bell. After realizing that they were losing profits they cut their losses and moved forward with new ideas (Caparell, 2007). Another way of expanding was to continue merging with other well known companies to cut costs. Working with Yahoo has helped them develop more technologically. As a result Pepsi now has a website of their own called Working with Apple Computer is a big hit because they use iTunes as a way to promote their products by giving away sweepstakes. They also have partnered with the sports world giants like Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer and the National Football League (Pepsi Story, 2010). Coca-Cola has been a threat to Pepsi from the very beginning. They both originated at the same time. However, Coca-Cola was able to get a strong hold on the soda market early on (Martin, 1962). One problem that Pepsi will most likely face in the future would be how to enter the market in countries that Coca-Cola already has a firm market. Currently most of Pepsis revenue is concentrated in the North American continent. Even in the North American continent Coca-Cola has had better sales than Pepsi (Allen, 1994). One solution is to pull out of some of the Coca-Cola dominated markets and begin to sell in countries that Coca-Cola does not yet have a strong market in like India and China. This could be beneficial to Pepsi because it would allow these recent growing consumers the opportunity to experience Pepsi products without the interference of Coca-Cola. Therefore, allowing Pepsi to gain a positive foreign market growth. A recommendation for the increasing threat of Coca-Cola is to carefully analyze c onsumer wants by focusing on market research. For example, when Pepsi used market research in the 1970s they found that consumers preferred larger bottles. In response to the information that was found Pepsi increased their bottle sizes. They went to work right away to increase the bottle sizes to thirty two ounce bottles and sixty four ounce packages (Pepsi Story, 2010). Pepsi has been good about responding to customer needs and wants. Therefore, continuing to analyze the changing wants and needs of the consumer is important. The youth seems to be more interested the sports drinks like their favorite athletes. While the older generation is more health conscientious and prefer diet sodas and water products. Information like these is important because it helps top managers make wise decisions on what their next moves should be. Pepsi and Coca-Cola have similar interests and customer bases. Therefore, it is imperative to do something different to get an edge on the soda war. Pepsi has been known to devise a team of bright young professionals from around the globe to find new creative ways to bring in a larger consumer base. One creative idea to test if people really preferred Coca-Cola over Pepsi was to do a taste test. According to Allen, Pepsi officials were desperate enough to try an off the wall approach. They gathered up several dozen professed Coca-Cola drinkers and conducted a taste test, by asking them to choose between soda marked Q and M. As a hidden camera rolled, slightly more than half the participants chose M and were surprised to discover that what they were drinking was Pepsi (Allen, 1994). Another way that they have encouraged consumers is by developing their website Pepsis research and development team came up with the website by using modern technology to advertise to a broader range of people. By advertising by internet it was a way for them to cut costs. They made their website fun and youthful. Also, they offer ways to win fre e items. In order to really compete with Coca-Cola the Pepsi management has to have some idea on Coca-Colas marketing strategy. Historically, Coca-Cola has done better at sales in the United States mainly because they service to restaurants. But Pepsi has outsold Coca-cola by ten percent in sales when it comes to selling in grocery stores (Allen, 1994). This is because Pepsi offers more options when it comes to the drink industry. The strategies that were used in the past are no longer an option in todays market. It is important for Pepsi managers to have the conceptual view because it will allow them to see the whole picture. In my recommendation once Pepsi has viewed all their options and resources available to them it would be a good idea to come up with a cost effective strategy against Coca-Cola. Pepsi already seems to be ahead of the game by being a multinational company. Pepsis managers play a key role in the success of Pepsi. Top managers have to keep the conceptual sk ills in mind when they think about the future. Growth within Pepsi will come from all areas of the company from the lower level employee to the CEO Indra Nooyi. Nooyi must look at Pepsi as a whole to see any new and innovative ways to compete against Coca-Cola. But in the business world Nooyi is known for her aggressive management style. Nooyi is known for showing the strength of good leadership. She was self confident that Pepsi would not do well in the restaurant business (Most Powerful Women, 2010). Also she implemented a number of strategies to improve the stability of Pepsi. One new way was through the bringing out of health conscious items. As a result Pepsi started to see a rise of profits. Though 2008 revenues grew 10% from the year before and snack sales are holding, Nooyi has been struggling to revamp falling profits in PepsiCos core beverage business. Focusing on innovation instead of acquisition, the company is debuting new product lines, targeted marketing and repackagi ng efforts in 2009 (Most Powerful Women, 2010). The managers at Pepsi are finding that they no longer can use the classical perspective of management. This is because in order to make sure that the company expands into the future treatment of the employees has to be fair. The company is consistently recognized for its corporate citizenship, philanthropic efforts and diversity programs (Pepsi Story, p.22). Hiring the right individuals with the same beliefs as Pepsi is very important to them. Pepsis focus on determination, focus, and a sense of purpose on the part of the employees, combined with enlightened leadership, can enhance the bottom line while offering social benefits beyond the walls of the corporation (Capparell, 2007, p.16). Managers at Pepsi try to diversify their staff. Recently it has become a big concern when some of its top managers left. But as a response to the concern Pepsi made an announcement that these were personal decisions and not those of the company. The refore, they value their employees to the fullest. The question of how to compete against Coca-Cola is one that management is continuing to work on constantly. In my recommendation I would suggest moving from a multinational company into a global corporation. By doing this it would cut costs but also they would be able to move from just a concentrate or syrup producer into the other three functions of this business. There are four main functions of the soda industry and they are concentrate or syrup producers, bottlers, distributors, and retailers (Tollison, Kaplan, Higgins, 1992). Pepsi manufactures concentrate which it sells to independent franchise bottlers. Pepsi currently has franchises to bottlers around the world. Those bottlers then manufacture, distribute and market finished products under the PepsiCo trademark (Tollison, Kaplan, Higgins, 1992). The advantage that Pepsi has over Coca-Cola is that Pepsi franchises their products to different bottlers around the world. Thi s started in the 1940s when Walter Mack was president for Pepsi he set up a bottling franchise system. Coca-Cola has always done it a little differently. Coca-Cola manufactures syrup, which in sells to bottlers, which, in turn, manufacture, distribute, and market finished soft drinks products principally to grocery stores, convenience stores, and vending machines (Tollison, Kaplan, Higgins, 1992). Pepsi wanted a different type of customer base. With Pepsi franchising the Pepsi products they are keeping a constant control over who has product. My next recommendation to Pepsi is that they need to focus on the suppliers and the labor market around the globe. Pepsi has already done this by outsourcing their products by franchising. The early presidents of Pepsi already had the intuition to get Pepsi to as many people as possible. An article in the late 1880s had acknowledged this. In 1883, The American Journal of Pharmacy for January had said of cola nuts: The nuts are used to form a refreshing and invigorating drink throughout a large portion of tropical AfricaÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦.Moreover, if, once introduced as a beverage in civilized countries, the demand for it would soon become enormous (Martin, 1962, p. 14-17). The idea that if Pepsi was introduced to other countries that there would be a demand for it. I believe that the same concept can be used today especially in the developing cities and countrysides of China and India. Pepsi always seems like a pioneer in the new phenomena of expanding overseas. In the 1950s management felt that Africa was a good place to start opening up new factories. In the 1950s Harvey Russell had pushed the Pepsi efforts in the direction of Africa. After Pepsi won the government approval for franchises in Western Nigeria in 1959, he sent three plant managers to open four plants there and stay on as temporary plant managers (Carappell, 2007, p.263). Pepsi was the first American consumer product to be manufactur ed in the Soviet Union. It was not long before they expanded into China. By the 1980s Pepsi started to distribute in China. After that they continued to expand overseas. Soon after merging with Frito-Lay, Inc. Pepsi changed their name to PepsiCo, Inc. Shortly after that they opened the first soft drink operations in Eastern Europe and Japan. By the middle of the 1980s Pepsi-Cola had over 600 plants in operation in over one hundred and forty countries. And by the 1990s Pepsi was invested in Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, and Argentina (Pepsi Story, 2010). In the recent years many companies have moved toward sending products oversea to China and India. It has become a way to cut costs so that these companies can compete with higher profit margins. Pepsi in the recent years has taken advantage of the same thing. They have invested a lot of money in China especially. In May 2010, Pepsi announced that it plans on investing another 2.5 billion in China by adding new plants and researc h facilities (Pepsi Coke Square off, 2010). Currently, they operate twenty-seven beverage and food plants there. Also, they have five farms in China with more than twenty thousand employees. But they have made substantial growth in India as well. PepsiCo gained entry to India in 1988 by creating a joint venture with the Punjab government-owned Punjab Argo Industrial Corporation (PAIC) and Voltas India Limited. This joint venture marketed and sold Lehar Pepsi until 1991, when the use of foreign brands was allowed; PepsiCo bought out its partners and ended the joint venture in 1994. In order for Pepsi to beat Coca-Cola at the globalizing war Pepsi will need to familiarize itself with the new countries is plans to invest in. Adapting to the culture, people, economy, and government regulations are essential for the residents of these countries to acknowledge the potential of Pepsi. In the past Pepsi has used bottling efforts to market in other countries. Now it is imperative to go to other countries with more of a humanistic approach. There have been complaints from villages in India that Coca-Cola has not valued the people there. In the 1970s Coca-Cola was forced out by the Indian government. Although Pepsi owns thirty eight factories verses Coca-Colas fifty-two, it is apparent that Coca-Cola is only there to make money. Coca-Cola illegally installed high-powered electric pumps to extract millions of liters of pure water and polluted what little water it had not stolen from the community in India (, 2005). Pepsi has done many efforts in order to help the less fortunate. Pepsi has made a statement that community involvement is important to them because their products touch so many lives. For example, in Walter Macks time as president he was known for having his educational scholarships open to anyone. He developed the Pepsi Scholarship Program. He wanted spot leaders not just smart employees (Capparell, 2007). At that time Fortune magazine wrote that Mack wanted the public impression that Pepsi-Cola is a company with a much broader interest in the public than merely making a dollar out of it. Pepsi throughout the years has donated millions and possibly billions to charities. Currently Pepsi has a partnership with YMCA. They also contribute to Save the Children Foundation, pediatrics AIDS care centers, as well as national disaster relief programs and national food distribution organizations. PepsiCo is a $29 billion company, employing more than 150,000 people speaking more than 40 languages around the globe (Pepsi Story, p.22). Today, Pepsi is in about two hundred countries worldwide and they are the worlds fourth largest company. According to the PepsiCo story, Pepsi is staking its claim as the global leader in convenience foods and beverages. Historically the rivalry between Pepsi and Coca-Cola has shown some cost reduction in the past. The steep decline in the price of carbonated soft drinks is therefore not solely at tributable to cost reductions in the industry. The source of this decline, among other things, is the intense competition that prevails in the industry (Tollison, Kaplan, Higgins, 1992). The war between Pepsi and Coca-Cola has done some positive things for the consumer. The intense competition between PepsiCo and Coca-Cola, in particular, yields lower prices, greater product variety, reliable and safe products, ready availability of products and good service for soft drink consumers (Tollison, Kaplan, Higgins, 1992). If Pepsi continues to come up with new fun and innovative ways to do Pepsi the result will be that more consumers will prefer Pepsi. This can and will hurt Coca-Colas sales. In December 2005, PepsiCo surpassed Coca-Cola in market value for the first time in 112 years since both companies began to compete. In conclusion, I believe that there is a lot of potential for Pepsi to sell more to the developing countries that have been exposed to globalization. If they contin ue to expand their products to these countries and be mindful of the cultures and customs of these people these people will be more excepting of Pepsi products. Therefore, through the continuing efforts of the management teams working together to brainstorm ideas Pepsi will eventually be known as the company that beat Coca-Cola at the cola wars and not as a number two competitor against them. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "How Pepsi compete Coca Cola in product sales" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Dylan Hollan . Ela 3- 6Th. Research Essay- (Word Count).

Dylan Hollan ELA 3- 6th Research Essay- (word count) April 12, 2017 Medical Marijuana Thesis Statement Introductory Paragraph Medical marijuana is a distinctly looking plant that is grown around the world and can be used medically. Medical marijuana is when â€Å"the whole, unprocessed marijuana plant or its basic extracts to treat symptoms of illness and other conditions† (Abuse). Marijuana plants can grow to be anywhere from twelve inches to eight feet tall, they have five leaves, and are a flowering plant. The plant is very hardy allowing it to be grown in numerous place around the world. There are a variety of different ways to intake marijuana. Smoking marijuana is the most commonly thought of method when intaking marijuana. Leaves†¦show more content†¦The National Institutes of Health (NIH) are funding many researcher to further the research and benefits of cannabinoids, THC and CBD in medical marijuana. It is believed that THC and CBD can help with killing cancer cell with radiation. With more studies being completed, along with states legalizing medical marijuana the acceptance for this once â€Å"harmful† drug is increasing. There are twenty-eight states that have legalized marijuana for medical use. The first state to legalize marijuana was California back in 1996 (What Are the Non-smoked Ways to Use Marijuana Medically? - Medical Marijuana - Within then the other twenty-seven states have followed, setting possession limits. Each state has compiled a list of approved conditions allowing patients to obtain marijuana for medical purposes. Patients also must register with the state and pay a registry fee before they are allowed to start treatment, this fee varies state to state. Some states accept other states’ registry ID card while other state do not. There are a general estimate of 2,604,079 nation wide users of medical marijuana. Although there are skeptics that say there is not enough evidence that medical marijuana is a good thing. Since medical marijuana has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), many people believe it should not be legalized. Researchers have not done enough large-scale studies to

Welfare Dependency a Residual Culture of Ex-Slaves Essay Sample free essay sample

I have frequently wondered why so many Afro-american adult females end up depending on public assistance. I presently live in Virginia but I am from the island of Jamaica where the Public Assistance plan is indistinguishable to the American theoretical account. Besides indistinguishable are the civilization and traditions of many Black individuals whose households were encultured with patterns and traditions from the pre-emancipation plantation epoch. I was in awe at the similarities and I frequently wondered ; what was the root cause for that common dependence syndrome that is apparent in Black people in America and Jamaica. It is non a pleasant topic but the fact is. the system of bondage is the foundation for many of the traditional cultural patterns and behaviours within the Black American communities. In retrospect. it can be argued that. the bondage based usage of trading strong illiterate black work forces to be used as he-man. thereby increasing the slave population and by ex tension the slave owners’ wealth ; had a residuary consequence on the African-American community. The ex-slaves carried the plantation civilization into their new emancipated lives ; in that. work forces continued to repeatedly infuse ( strain ) as many adult females as possible. and they continued to walk off without holding any sense of duty towards their legion kids. It can besides be argued that. the plantation male’s belief that the kids were â€Å"Massa’s† responsibility/property. prevailed in some households even to this twenty-four hours. Similarly. in Jamaica. the work forces and adult females on public assistance frequently say that the authorities will take attention of their kids same attitude as the mentally enslaved Black-American male. On the other manus. on the plantation. the every bit illiterate adult females were used as breeders ; with no pick in the affair ; they were forced to mate with any male he-man that their proprietors chose. and they had to reproduce really frequently. as a mean of increasing the slave owners’ stock. White work forces could hold sex with any female slave without fright of prosecution because slaves were non deemed to be persons but plantation belongings. Bing able to hold many kids was a mean of finding their self-worth and self-value by their owners’ definition. As a affair of fact. slave proprietors used to purchase lone females with wide hips and large butts ; the grade that they were good breeders. Obviously. the choicest good breeders’ outlook besides prevailed beyond bondage. in that. many Afro-american adult females continued to hold many kids. oftentimes for assorted work forces and they sat on their buttockss. with the outlook that the authorities ( Massa ) will care for their progeny. To this twenty-four hours. in the southern provinces ; many adult females are. fleshy. with the inordinate fatso wide hips and large butts ; marks of the slave owners’ pick and penchant. The pattern of holding multiple gestations with the outlook to roll up nutrient casts for them is morally incorrect. In the same mode that bondage was morally incorrect ; public assistance dependence in this instance. is besides morally incorrect. I am taking a retaliatory stance on this issue because Black adult females who continue to act as if they are baby mills ; holding no beginning of income to care for them ; ought to confront punitory effects. In an effort to stem the hemorrhage of revenue enhancement remunerators financess into public aid plans ; at that place ought to be a regulation in the public assistance plan that requires each province to care for no more than one kid per household. The other kids ought to be the family’s duty. The public assistance dependence type of behaviour is called Free Riding. â€Å"Free siting. in economic science expresses the thought of one who enjoys the benefits of society without paying for it. either by devouring more than oneâ⠂¬â„¢s portion or paying less for what one consumes. † ( Mosser 2010 ) . Introduction Moralist Len Goodman wrote. â€Å"Slavery is the deepest development. overruling subjecthood to do a individual a tool for usage. Slavery keeps its victim alive while depriving her of bureau. delegating it to others who do non portion her undertakings. hopes. or involvements. but subordinate her capablenesss to their wants. † ( Goodman 2010 ) The Afro-american plantation outlook. that overvalued holding many kids. as a manner of turn outing their self-worth and self-value ; prevailed beyond bondage. emancipation and station emancipation periods. into modern times. Therefore. it is safe to reason that. in these modern times. the residuary effects of that type of behaviour coupled with illiteracy. is still apparent within some Afro-american households. Counter to that statement. instruction made the difference in the lives of infinite African-Americans who have risen above assorted unsound stereotypes to stand out even to the place highest power in America. Yet. there remains within that group. a great figure who are still populating below the poorness line. and they depend on monthly public aid public assistance cheques to last. This group needs to be empowered with several demands specific. culturally/academically realistic cognition and accomplishments that will fit them to be engaged in paid income generating activities. The difference with this grownup instruction push would be the alone civilization based attack ; the purpose of such a plan would be. to put group members on the way to reconstruct their liberty and human self-respect. It was the ancient Sage Aristotle who said. â€Å"Education is the best proviso for old age. † hypertext transfer protocol: //www. quotationspage. com/subjects/education/ Therefore. a more methodical. scientifically researched. group-needs-specific. reeducation ; must be implemented in order to liberate the greater figure of people of colour. from mental bondage ( Marley. Bob ) ; in a renewed effort to interrupt their rhythm of poorness. It is frequently said. â€Å"Old wonts die hard ; † and if the societal policy shapers do non kill the wont of public assistance dependence now ; taxpayers will be caught in the rhythm of duty for these same households ; from the uterus to the grave. However. ethically. those work forces and adult females did non perpetrate any offense because they were transporting on their traditional household civilization ; ( Nowak A ; Laird. 2010 ) where females had sex ( oftentimes emotionless ) with a adult male and gave birth afterwards. It was cogent evidence that the adult female was strong. By comparing. in Jamaica adult females. in many station emancipation plantation communities sometimes have every bit many as 13 kids for many different work forces and they survive on child care and public aid cheques. Technically. this behaviour can be ethically classified. as a victimless offense. because the woman’s behaviour is harmful to her alone and no 1 else. ( Mosser 2010 ) . Still. when a kid is born into the state of affairs. a victim is created. because that kid is likely to be raised in low poorness and deficiency. On the other manus. the work forces were socialized on the plantation to act like cocks in a barnyard ; to catch a biddy. have unemotional sex. so walk off. caput in the air. without a backward glimpse. Judging by normal social criterions. this was colza ; albeit. the act was covertly encouraged by the governments of the twenty-four hours. ( However. if a charge was laid against a Black adult male with a Black adult female ; a relativist could reason the instance down to traditional cultural patterns ) . The traditional behaviour did non necessitate the adult male to settle down and rear his kids. In this instance. Applied Virtue Ethical motives can non hold that adult male to be immoral ; because his moral criterions were predetermined by a system over which he had no control. ( Mosser 2010 ) . Simultaneously. there seem to hold been an overall social credence of what could hold been a residuary keeping of a matriarchal system of belief and civilization. which demanded that the Black adult female on the plantation took on the duty of raising the kids ; so that the adult male could be free to make more kids. The national ideal is ; the male parents should be held responsible for their kids and non taxpayers. hypertext transfer protocol: //archive. acf. Department of Health and Human Services. gov/programs/cse/pubs/2008/preliminary_report_fy2007/ Theoretically. the relativist would demand that policy shapers conduct thorough sociological probes before making policies for that community ; thereby. deriving a better apprehension of the people’s value systems and their endemic cultural patterns. ( Mosser 2010 ) . That acquired cognition would organize the footing on which policies are developed for that mark group. Alternatively. the Social Welfare policy shapers included the African-Americans into a system that was designed for and catered to the bulk of people who were Caucasian. In other words. developers of societal policy took the Utilitarian attack that considered the good of the bulk ; disregarding that minority group of former plantation dependants ; merely to detect decennaries subsequently. that non all societal groupings have the same demands. On the position of deontological moralss. one should handle others as one would desire to be treated. Those who design and implement policy may necessitate to inquire themselves whether the policy is designed in such a manner that they would experience comfy working under it themselves. ( Mosser 2010 ) Deontological moralss besides emphasizes the regard and self-respect owed to human existences merely because they are human existences. ( Mosser 2010 ) Back so. there should hold been post emancipation reeducation plans ; to interrupt the rhythm of dependence by educating the Black people with vision and hope of future liberty. Public Assistance and Public Education Social policy determination shapers and developers had to make plans to turn to the issues of illiteracy. poorness and unemployment in countries where there were big concentration of Black people. State Authorities implemented public assistance aid for destitute kids and they besides built public schools specifically for African Americans. However. the job with the public aid public assistance plan was ; more kids equaled more money. ( The public assistance system merely replaced Massa ) . The Public Assistance plan is non-contributory and it is funded by taxpayers. It is a system whereby the societal worker makes recommendations based on the single demand ; but where there are kids at hazard of hungering within the household ; the child/children get ( s ) particular consideration. Therefore. public assistance receivers in the yesteryear. approaching the clip for the expiration of their benefit ; got pregnant ( sometimes for any available adult male ) in order to maintain and increase the sum on their cheques. Many of them do non win in the public assistance to work plans. because they are uneducated and unskilled. hypertext transfer protocol: //urbanhabitat. org/node/858. Consequently. puting adult females on public assistance into occupations without first preparation and educating them ; is kindred to seting the proverbial cart before the Equus caballus. Unlike their Caucasic opposite numbers who normally are better educated ; the adult females of colour normally measure up for entry degree. low paying occupations. hypertext transfer protocol: //urbanhabitat. org/node/858 An extract from an Urban Habitat study â€Å"There is some grounds that racial disadvantage in the labour market is besides being played out in footings of the rates at which different racial groups are go forthing the axial rotations. Welfare usage is worsening quickly among all races. but white receivers are go forthing the public assistance rolls at a much more rapid rate than Blacks or Latinos. In New York City. for illustration. the figure of Whites having public assistance benefits declined by 57 per centum between 1995 and 1998. while the rate of diminution for Blacks was 30 per centum and that of Latinos. seven per centum. White receivers have led the diminution nationally every bit good. Some explanatory factors may include: higher mean educational degrees among white receivers ; greater concentrations of receivers of colour in job-poor interior metropoliss ; and racial favoritism in employment and lodging. Susan Gooden’s findings sing racial favoritism in the proviso of information and aid. 16 every bit good as her findings of racial derived functions in employment results among Black and white participants in one province public assistance reform plan. 17 are clearly relevant here. Though the combination of lending factors is doubtless complex. the more rapid passage of white receivers into the labour force is one index of the racially disparate impact of public assistance reform. † hypertext transfer protocol: //urbanhabitat. org/node/858 The reformed public assistance system requires each donee over 18 old ages old. to be employed or actively seeking work ; exclusions are made for breastfeeding female parents with neonates. Added to that. the figure of needed on the job hours is besides dependent on the age of the youngest kid. Having said that. I will repeat an earlier observation. the adult females have kids on a timely footing in order to stay on the plan and non travel out to work ; hence. the ground for so many kids in the families. However. it is worthy of note. that under the reformed public aid system. no household can be on the plan for more than 60 months. The authorities had to admit that at that place had to be a budget decrease of the Federal outgo on public assistance aid ; for illustration. the province of Ohio in its Public Assistance study of one-year outgo ; spent about two million dollars on nutrient casts in 2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. docstoc. com/docs/52123855/Public-Assistance-Monthly-Statistics-Report-State-FiscalYear-2009 Whether this was the purpose of the developers of the reform or non ; the societal public assistance policy alterations coupled with the panic acquiring of the HIV/AIDS virus. helped to deter repeat gestations among immature Black adult females. Further to that. the public instruction attempts about the wisdom of household planning. and the personal pick to abstain from sex until one is matured and educated adequate to manage it ; seemed to hold affected the behaviour of the many individuals in the those targeted communities ; aided by the panic of the HIV/AIDS virus. The public instructio n runs for rubber use worked ; it was effectual. Nowadays. one can compare the one time despised rubber. to a human extremity ; it goes everyplace. In these modern times. in the Afro-american civilization. holding many kids is no longer recognized as the beginning of wealth because public instruction on household planning is available to all. Sill. a few affluent African American twosomes sometimes have more than three kids and follow others because they can afford to keep them financially. As ever. there are those who argue that. America needs to establish a run against adult females holding kids for taxpayers’ attention ; and the demand to prosecute able bodied. lazy. uneducated people of every tegument colour. in paid employment. Many of the receivers of the destitute household benefits are immature adult females. At the same clip. at that place needs to be feasible plans in topographic point. to help those donees to acquire out of the rhythm of poorness. It can be argued that. a state that has excessively many people pop ulating in low poorness ; will finally pass more in countries of offense decrease. wellness. personal and national safety and renewed investings. Worthy of note at this occasion is that. the majority of the national budget is military outgos ; that is common cognition. In comparing. for argument’s interest. China’s household planning policy of one kid per family. worked in favour of their economic system. Such a societal policy appeared to be highly Draconian to those of us who live in broad western societies. However. in the long tally. it helped the Chinese economic system by cut downing the outgo of public resources on societal public assistance plans. The financess were redirected in countries such as instruction. wellness. agribusiness. scientific discipline and engineering. transit. exportation. and above all fabrication. In add-on to all that. the Chinese people actively sought after entrepreneurship ; whether at place or abroad. North America is China’s best client. China is now in a place to help. and is assisting developing states like Jamaica. with proficient expertness and skilled workers. particularly in the country of civil technology. Whereas. before the nation’s economic development. poorness afflicted Ch inese subjects used to stow away from place by any agencies possible ; so escape the abrasiveness of their country’s economic system and to eke out being elsewhere. â€Å"The authorities has an duty to protect its citizens. but main among the protections it provides are the rights of those citizens. † ( Mosser 2010 ) . Protection in this instance extends to societal protection. as in supplying a societal safety cyberspace for the vulnerable and disfranchised members of the society. I mentioned China to indicate out that. the procedure of reeducating Black adult females on public assistance ought to hold a strong component of the sense of belonging to America. understanding the function they must play in personal and national development. the wagess of entrepreneurship and self-government. Equally good as the instruction of good work moralss. Unlike the Chinese. American societal workers should take a Dialectic ( Mosser 2010 ) attack ; where they engage the individuals in focal point. in treatments and arguments before doing determination that will impact those persons’ lives. The purpose of this reeducation push would be to take as many of the residuary. suicidal plantation patterns as possible. Some would reason that it takes hard currency to care and many provinces can non afford the extra outgo that a reeducation plan could incur. However. a cost benefit analysis ought to be done to pre-determine the program’s affordability. Harmonizing to Mosser. cost-benefit analysis evaluates a determination in footings of its advantages ( benefits ) and disadvantages ( costs ) . Although it is frequently used in measuring the economic impact of a determination. many argue that costs and benefits should non be understood merely in footings of fiscal impact. ( Mosser 2010 ) . The instruction of good work moralss ought to get down with ; working for oneself to pay oneself ; entrepreneurship. DecisionThe ex-slaves carried the plantation civilization into their new emancipated lives ; in that. work forces continued to repeatedly infuse ( strain ) as many adult females as possible. and they continued to walk off without holding any sense of duty towards their legion kids. It can besides be argued that. the plantation male’s belief that the kids were â€Å"Massa’s† duty. prevailed in some households even to this twenty-four hours. The traditional behaviour did non necessitate the adult male to settle down and rear his kids. Applied Virtue Ethics. in this instance. can non hold that adult male to be immoral because his moral criterions were predetermined by a system over which he had no control. ( Mosser 2010 ) . After emancipation. some Afro-american adult females continued to hold many kids. oftentimes for assorted work forces and they sat on their buttockss. with the outlook that the authorities ( Massa ) will care for their progeny. This sort of behaviour is called Free Riding. â€Å"Free siting. in economic science expresses the thought of one who enjoys the benefits of society without paying for it. either by devouring more than one’s portion or paying less for what one consumes. † ( Mosser 2010 ) . State Authorities implemented public assistance aid for destitute kids and they built public schools. However. the job with the public aid public assistance plan was ; more kids equaled more money.